Saturday, 20 August 2011

Motionless Pulsed Systems



The pulsed devices mentioned so far have had moving parts.   This does not have to be the case if rotating or fluctuating magnetic fields can be created without moving parts.   This can indeed be done, and an example of this is Graham Gunderson’s Solid-State Electric Generator shown in US Patent Application 2006/0163971 A1 of 27th July 2006.   The details are as follows:

Abstract
A solid-state electrical generator including at least one permanent magnet, magnetically coupled to a ferromagnetic core provided with at least one hole penetrating its volume; the hole(s) and magnet(s) being placed so that the hole(s) intercept flux from the permanent magnet(s) coupled into the ferromagnetic core.   A first wire coil is wound around the ferromagnetic core for the purpose of moving the coupled permanent magnet flux within the ferromagnetic core.   A second wire is routed through the hole(s) penetrating the volume of the ferromagnetic core, for the purpose of intercepting this moving magnetic flux, thereby inducing an output electromotive force.   A changing voltage applied to the first wire coil causes coupled permanent magnet flux to move within the core relative to the hole(s) penetrating the core volume, thus inducing electromotive force along wire(s) passing through the hole(s) in the ferromagnetic core.   The mechanical action of an electrical generator is therefore synthesised without the use of moving parts.

Background
This invention relates to a method and device for generating electrical power using solid state means. It has long been known that moving a magnetic field across a wire will generate an electromotive force (EMF), or voltage, along the wire.   When this wire is connected in a closed electrical circuit, an electric current, capable of performing work, is driven through this closed circuit by the induced electromotive force.

It has also long been known that this resulting electric current causes the closed circuit to become encircled with a secondary, induced magnetic field, whose polarity opposes the primary magnetic field which first induced the EMF.   This magnetic opposition creates mutual repulsion as a moving magnet approaches such a closed circuit, and a mutual attraction as that moving magnet moves away from the closed circuit.   Both these actions tend to slow or cause “drag” on the progress of the moving magnet, causing the electric generator to act as a magnetic brake, whose effect is in direct proportion to the amount of electric current produced.

Historically, gas engines, hydroelectric dams and steam-fed turbines have been used to overcome this magnetic braking action which occurs within mechanical generators.   A large amount of mechanical power is required to produce a large amount of electrical power, since the magnetic braking is generally proportional to the amount of electrical power being generated.

There has long been felt the need for a generator which reduces or eliminates the well-known magnetic braking interaction, while nevertheless generating useful electric power.   The need for convenient, economical and powerful sources of renewable energy remains urgent.   When the magnetic fields within a generator are caused to move and interact by means other than applied mechanical force, electric power can be supplied without the necessity of consuming limited natural resources, thus with far greater economy.

Summary of the Invention
It has long been known that the source of the magnetism within a permanent magnet is a spinning electric current within ferromagnetic atoms of certain elements, persisting indefinitely in accord with well-defined quantum rules.   This atomic current encircles every atom, thereby causing each atom to emit a magnetic field, as a miniature electromagnet.

This atomic current does not exist in magnets alone.   It also exists in ordinary metallic iron, and in any element or metallic alloy which can be “magnetised”, that is, any material which exhibits ferromagnetism.   All ferromagnetic atoms and “magnetic metals” contain such quantum atomic electromagnets.

In specific ferromagnetic materials, the orientation axis of each atomic electromagnet is flexible.   The orientation of magnetic flux both internal and external to the material, pivots easily.   Such materials are referred to as magnetically “soft”, due to this magnetic flexibility.

Permanent magnet materials are magnetically “hard”.   The orientation axis of each is fixed in place within a rigid crystal structure.   The total magnetic field produced by these atoms cannot easily move.   This constraint aligns the field of ordinary magnets permanently, hence the name “permanent”.

The axis of circular current flow in one ferromagnetic atom can direct the axis of magnetism within another ferromagnetic atom, through a process known as “spin exchange”.   This gives a soft magnetic material, like raw iron, the useful ability to aim, focus and redirect the magnetic field emitted from a magnetically hard permanent magnet.

In the present invention, a permanent magnet’s rigid field is sent into a magnetically flexible “soft” magnetic material. the permanent magnet’s apparent location, observed from points within the magnetically soft material, will effectively move, vibrate, and appear to shift position when the magnetisation of the soft magnetic material is modulated by ancillary means (much like the sun, viewed while underwater, appears to move when the water is agitated).   By this mechanism, the motion required for generation of electricity can be synthesised within a soft magnetic material, without requiring physical movement or an applied mechanical force.

The present invention synthesises the virtual motion of magnets and their magnetic fields, without the need for mechanical action or moving parts, to produce the electrical generator described here.   The present invention describes an electrical generator where magnetic braking known as expressions of Lenz’s Law, do not oppose the means by which the magnetic field energy is caused to move.   The synthesised magnetic motion is produced without either mechanical or electrical resistance.   This synthesised magnetic motion is aided by forces generated in accordance with Lenz’s Law, in order to produce acceleration of the synthesised magnetic motion, instead of physical “magnetic braking” common to mechanically-actuated electrical generators.   Because of this novel magnetic interaction, the solid-state static generator of the present invention is a robust generator, requiring only a small electric force of operate.


Brief Description of the Drawings

The appended drawings illustrate only typical embodiments of this invention and are therefore not to be considered limiting of its scope, as the invention encompasses other equally effective embodiments.



Fig.1 is an exploded view of the generator of this invention.




Fig.2 is a cross-sectional elevation of the generator of this invention.




Fig.3 is a schematic diagram of the magnetic action occurring within the generator of Fig.1 and Fig.2.




Fig.4 is a circuit diagram, illustrating one method of operating the electrical generator of this invention.







Detailed Description of the Invention Fig.1 depicts a partially exploded view of an embodiment of an electrical generator of this invention.   The part numbers also apply in Fig.2and Fig.3.





Numeral 1 represents a permanent magnet with it’s North pole pointing inward towards the soft ferromagnetic core of the device.   Similarly, numeral 2 indicates permanent magnets (preferably of the same size, shape and composition), with their South poles aimed inward towards the opposite side, or opposite surface of the device.   The letters “S” and “N” denote these magnetic poles in the drawings.   Other magnetic polarities and configurations may be used with success; the pattern shown merely illustrates one efficient method of adding magnets to the core.

The magnets may be formed of any polarised magnetic material.   In order of descending effectiveness, the most desirable permanent magnet materials are Neodymium-Iron-Boron (“NIB”), Samarium Cobalt, AlNiCo alloy, or “ceramic” Strontium-Barium or Lead-Ferrite.   A primary factor determining permanent magnet material composition is the magnetic flux strength of the particular material type.   In an embodiment of the invention, these magnets may also be substituted with one or more electromagnets producing the required magnetic flux.   In another embodiment of the invention, a superimposed DC current bias can be applied to the output wire to generate the required magnetic flux, replacing or augmenting the permanent magnets.

Numeral 3 indicates the magnetic core.   This core is a critical component of the generator.   The core determines the output power capacity, the optimum magnet type, the electrical impedance and the operating frequency range.   The core may be any shape, composed of any ferromagnetic material, formed by any process (sintering, casting, adhesive bonding, tape-winding, etc.).   A wide range of shapes, materials and processes is known in the art of making magnetic cores.   Effective common materials include amorphous metal alloys (such as sold under the “Metglas” trademark by Metglas Inc., Conway, S.C.), nanocrystalline alloys, manganese and zinc ferrites as well as ferrites of any suitable element including any combination of magnetically “hard” and “soft” ferrites, powdered metals and ferromagnetic alloys, laminations of cobalt and/or iron and silicon-iron “electrical steel”.   This invention successfully utilises any ferromagnetic material, while functioning as claimed.   In an embodiment of the invention, and for the purpose of illustration, a circular “toroid” core is illustrated.   In an embodiment of the invention, the composition may be bonded iron powder, commonly available from many manufacturers.

Regardless of core type, the core is prepared with holes, through which, wires may pass.   the holes are drilled or formed to penetrate the core’s ferromagnetic volume.   The toroidal core 3 shown, includes radial holes pointing towards a common centre.   If, for example, stiff wire rods were to be inserted through each of these holes, these rods would meet at the centre point of the core, producing an appearance similar to a spoked wheel.   If a square or rectangular core (not illustrated) is used, then these holes are preferably oriented parallel to the core’s flat sides, causing stiff rods passed through the holes to form a square grid pattern, as the rods cross each other in the interior “window” area framed by the core.   While in other embodiments of the invention, these holes may take any possible orientation or patterns of orientation, a simple row of radial holes is illustrated as one example.

Numeral 4 depicts a wire, or bundle of wires which pick up and carry the output power of the generator.   Typically, this wire is composed of insulated copper, though other materials such as aluminium, iron, dielectric material, polymers and semiconducting materials may be substituted.   It may be seen in Fig.1 and Fig.2, that wire 4 passes alternately through neighbouring holes formed in core 3.   The path taken by wire 4 undulates as it passes in opposite direction through each adjacent hole.   If an even number of holes is used, the wire will emerge on the same side of the core on which it first entered.   Once all the holes are filled, the resulting pair of trailing leads may be twisted together or similarly terminated, forming the output terminals of the generator shown at numeral 5.   Output wire 4, may also make multiple passes through each hole in the core.   Though the winding pattern is not necessarily undulatory, this basic form is shown as an example.   Many effective connection styles exist.   This illustration shows the most simple.



Numeral 6 in Fig.1, Fig.2 and Fig.3, points to a partial illustration of the input winding, or inductive coil used to shift the fields of the permanent magnets, within the core.   Typically, this wire coil encircles the core, wrapping around it.   For the toroidal core shown, input coil 6 resembles the outer windings of a typical toroidal inductor - a common electrical component.   For the sake of clarity, only a few turns of coil 6 are shown in each of Fig.1Fig.2 and Fig.3.   In practice, this coil may cover the entire core, or specific sections of the core, including, or not including the magnets.

Fig.2 shows the same electrical generator of Fig.1, looking transparently “down” through it from above, so that the relative positions of the core holes (shown as dotted lines), the path of the output wire 4, and the position of the magnets (white hatched areas for magnets under the core and green hatched areas for magnets above the core) are made clear.   The few representative turns of the input coil 6 are shown in red in Fig.2.

The generator illustrated, uses a core with 8 radially drilled holes.   The spacing between these holes is equal.   As shown, each hole is displaced by 45 degrees from each of it’s adjoining holes.   The centres of all of the holes lie on a common plane lying half-way down the vertical thickness of the core.   Cores of any shape or size may have as few as two or as many as hundreds of holes and a similar number of magnets.   Other variations exist, such as generators with multiple rows of holes, zigzag and diagonal patterns, or output wire 4 moulded directly into the core material.   In any case, the basic magnetic interaction shown in Fig.3 occurs for each hole in the core as described below.




Fig.3 shows the same design, viewed from the side.   The curvature of the core is shown flattened on the page for the purpose of illustration.   The magnets are represented schematically, protruding from the top and bottom of the core, and including arrows indicating the direction of magnetic flux (the arrow heads point to the magnet’s North pole).

In practice, the free, unattached polar ends of the generator’s magnets may be left “as-is” in open air, or they may be provided with a common ferromagnetic path linking the unattached North and South poles together as a magnetic “ground”.   The common return path is typically made of steel, iron or similar material, taking the form of a ferrous enclosure housing the device.   It may serve the additional purpose of a protecting chassis.   The magnetic return may also be another ferromagnetic core of a similar electric generator stacked on top of the illustrated generator.   There can be a stack of generators, sharing common magnets between the generator cores.   Any such additions are without direct bearing on the functional principle of the generator itself, and have therefore been omitted from these illustrations.

Two example flux diagrams are shown in Fig.3.   Each example is shown in a space between schematically depicted partial input coils 6.   A positive or negative polarity marker indicates the direction of input current, applied through the input coil.   This applied current produces “modulating” magnetic flux, which is used to synthesise apparent motion of the permanent magnets, and is shown as a double-tailed horizontal arrow (a) along the core 3.   Each example shows this double-tailed arrow (a) pointing to the right or to the left, depending on the polarity of the applied current.

In either case, vertical flux entering the core (b,3) from the external permanent magnets (1,2) is swept along within the core, in the direction of the double-tailed arrow (a), representing the magnetic flux of the input coil.   These curved arrows (b) in the space between the magnets and the holes, can be seen to shift or bend (a --> b), as if they were streams or jets of air subject to a changing wind.

The resulting sweeping motion of the fields of the permanent magnets, causes their flux (b) to brush back and forth over the holes and wire 4 which passes through these holes.   Just as in a mechanical generator, when the magnetic flux brushes or “cuts” sideways across a conductor in this way, voltage is induced in the conductor.   If an electrical load is connected across the ends of this wire conductor (numeral 5 in Fig.1 and Fig.2), a current flows through the load via this closed circuit, delivering electrical power able to perform work.   Input of an alternating current across the input coil 6, generates an alternating magnetic field (a) causing the fields of permanent magnets 1 and 2 to shift (b) within the core 3, inducing electrical power through a load (attached to terminals 5), as if the fixed magnets (1,2) themselves were physically moving.   However, no mechanical motion is present.

In a mechanical generator, induced current powering an electrical load, returns through output wire 4, creating a secondary induced magnetic field, exerting forces which substantially oppose the original magnetic field inducing the original EMF.   Since load currents induce their own, secondary magnetic fields opposing the original act of induction in this way, the source of the original induction requires additional energy to restore itself and continue generating electricity.   In mechanical generators, the energy-inducing motion of the generator’s magnetic fields is being physically actuated, requiring a strong prime mover (such as a steam turbine) to restore the EMF-generating magnetic fields’ motion against the braking effect of the output-induced magnetic fields (the induced field c and the inducing field b), destructively in mutual opposition, which must ultimately be overcome by physical force, which is commonly produced by the consumption of other energy resources.

The electrical generator of the present invention is not actuated by mechanical force.   It makes use of the induced secondary magnetic field in such a way as to not cause opposition, but instead, addition and resulting acceleration of magnetic field motion.   Because the present invention is not mechanically actuated, and because the magnetic fields do not act to destroy one another in mutual opposition, the present invention does not require the consumption of natural resources in order to generate electricity.

The present generator’s induced magnetic field, resulting from electrical current flowing through the load and returning through output wire 4, is that of a closed loop encircling each hole in the core.   The induced magnetic fields create magnetic flux in the form of closed loops within the ferromagnetic core.   The magnetic field “encircles” each hole in the core which carries output wire 4.   This is similar to the threads of a screw “encircling” the shaft of the screw.

Within this generator, the magnetic field from output wire 4 immediately encircles each hole formed in the core (c).   Since wire 4 may take an opposing direction through each neighbouring hole, the direction of the resulting magnetic field will likewise be opposite.   The direction of arrows (b) and (c) are, at each hole, opposing, headed in opposite directions, since (b) is the inducing flux and (c) is the induced flux, each opposing one another while generating electricity.

However, this magnetic opposition is effectively directed against the permanent magnets which are injecting their flux into the core, but not the source of the alternating magnetic input field 6.   In the present solid-state generator, induced output flux (4,c) is directed to oppose the permanent magnets (1,2) not the input flux source (6, a) which is synthesising the virtual motion of those magnets (1,2) by it’s magnetising action on core 3.

The present generator employs magnets as the source of motive pressure driving the generator, since they are the entity being opposed or “pushed against” by the opposing reaction induced by output current which is powering a load.   Experiments show that high-quality permanent magnets can be magnetically “pushed against” in this way for very long periods of time, before becoming demagnetised or “spent”.

Fig.3 illustrates inducing representative flux arrows (b) directed oppositely against induced representative flux (c).   In materials typically used to form core 3, fields flowing in mutually opposite directions tend to cancel each other, just as positive and negative numbers of equal magnitude sum to zero.

On the remaining side of each hole, opposite the permanent magnet, no mutual opposition takes place.   Induced flux (c) caused by the generator load current remains present; however, inducing flux from the permanent magnets (b) is not present since no magnet is present, on this side, to provide the necessary flux.   This leaves the induced flux (c) encircling the hole, as well as input flux (a) from the input coils 6, continuing its path along the core, on either side of each hole.

On the side of each hole in the core where a magnet is present, action (b) and reaction (c) magnetic flux substantially cancel each other, being directed in opposite directions within the core.   On the other side of each hole, where no magnet is present, input flux (a) and reaction flux (c) share a common direction.   Magnetic flux adds together in these zones, where induced magnetic flux (c) aids the input flux (a).   This is the reverse of typical generator action, where induced flux (c) is typically opposing the “input” flux originating the induction.

Since the magnetic interaction is a combination of magnetic flux opposition and magnetic flux acceleration, there is no longer an overall magnetic braking or total opposition effect.   The braking and opposition is counterbalanced by a simultaneous magnetic acceleration within the core.   Since mechanical motion is absent, the equivalent electrical effect ranges from idling, or absence of opposition, to a strengthening and overall acceleration of the electrical input signal (within coils 6). proper selection of the permanent magnet (1,2) material and flux density, core 3 material magnetic characteristics, core hole pattern and spacing, and output medium connection technique, create embodiments where the present generator will display an absence of electrical loading at the input and/or an overall amplification of the input signal. this ultimately causes less input energy to be required in order to work the generator.   Therefore, as increasing amounts of energy are withdrawn from the generator as output power performing useful work, decreasing amounts of energy are generally required to operate it.   This process continues, working against the permanent magnets (1,2) until they are demagnetised.



In an embodiment of this invention, Fig.4 illustrates a typical operating circuit employing the generator of this invention.   A square-wave input signal from a transistor switching circuit, is applied at the input terminals (S), to the primary (a) of a step-down transformer 11.   The secondary winding (b) of the input transformer may be a single turn, in series with a capacitor 12 and the generator 13 input coil (c), forming a series resonant circuit.   The frequency of the applied square wave (S) must either match, or be an integral sub-harmonic of the resonant frequency of this 3-element transformer-capacitor-inductor input circuit.

Generator 13 output winding (d) is connected to resistive load L through switch 14.   When switch 14 is closed, generated power is dissipated at L, which is any resistive load, for example, and incandescent lamp or resistive heater.

Once input resonance is achieved, and the square-wave frequency applied at S is such that the combined reactive impedance of total inductance (b + c) is equal in magnitude to the opposing reactive impedance of capacitance 12, the electrical phases of current through, and voltage across, generator 13 input coil (c) will flow 90 degrees apart in resonant quadrature.   Power drawn from the square-wave input energy source applied to S will now be at a minimum.

In this condition, the resonant energy present at the generator input may be measured by connecting a voltage probe across the test points (v), situated across the generator input coil, together with a current probe around point (I), situated in series with the generator input coil (c).   The instantaneous vector product of these two measurements indicates the energy circulating at the generator’s input, ultimately shifting the permanent magnets’ fields in order to create useful induction.   This situation persists until the magnets are no longer magnetised.

It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that a square (or other) wave may be applied directly to the generator input terminals (c) without the use of other components.   While this remains effective, advantageous re-generating effects may not be realised to their fullest extent with such direct excitation.   Use of a resonant circuit, particularly with inclusion of a capacitor 12 as suggested, facilitates recirculation of energy within the input circuit, generally producing efficient excitation and a reduction of the required input power as loads are applied.



Another device of this type comes from Charles Flynn.   The technique of applying magnetic variations to the magnetic flux produced by a permanent magnet is covered in detail in the patents of Charles Flynn which are included in the Appendix.   In his patent he shows techniques for producing linear motion, reciprocal motion, circular motion and power conversion, and he gives a considerable amount of description and explanation on each, his main patent containing a hundred illustrations.   Taking one application at random: He states that a substantial enhancement of magnetic flux can be obtained from the use of an arrangement like this:




Here, a laminated soft iron frame has a powerful permanent magnet positioned in it’s centre and six coils are wound in the positions shown.   The magnetic flux from the permanent magnet flows around both sides of the frame.




The full patent details of this system from Charles Flynn are in the Appendix, starting at page A - 338.



Lawrence Tseung has recently produced a subtle design using very similar principles. He takes a magnetic frame of similar style and inserts a permanent magnet in one of the arms of the frame. He then applies sharp DC pulses to a coils wound on one side of the frame and draws off energy from a coil wound on the other side of the frame.

He shows three separate operating modes for the devices as follows:



Lawrence comments on three possible arrangements. The first on shown above is the standard commercial transformer arrangement where there is a frame made from insulated iron shims in order to cut down the "eddy" currents which otherwise would circulate around inside the frame at right angles to the useful magnetic pulsing which links the two coils on the opposite sides of the frame. As is very widely known, this type of arrangement never has an output power greater than the input power.

However, that arrangement can be varied in several different ways. Lawrence has chosen to remove a section of the frame and replace it with a permanent magnet as shown in the diagram below. This alters the situation very considerably as the permanent magnet causes a continuous circulation of magnetic flux around the frame before any alternating voltage is applied to the input coil. If the pulsing input power is applied in the wrong direction as shown here, where the input pulses generate magnetic flux which opposes the magnetic flux already flowing in the frame from the permanent magnet, then the output is actually lower than it would have been without the permanent magnet.



However, if the input coil is pulsed so that the current flowing in the coil produces a magnetic field which reinforces the magnetic field of the permanent magnet then it is possible for the output power to exceed the input power. The "Coefficient of Performance" or "COP" of the device is the amount of output power divided by the amount of input power which the user has to put in to make the device operate. In this instance the COP value can be greater than one:



There is a limitation to this as the amount of magnetic flux which any particular frame can carry is limited by the material from which it is made. Iron is the most common material for frames of this type and it has a very definite saturation point. If the permanent magnet is so strong that it causes saturation of the frame material before the input pulsing is applied, then there can't be any effect at all from positive DC pulsing as shown. This is just common sense but it makes it clear that the magnet chosen must not be too strong for the size of the frame, and why that should be.

As an example of this, one of the people replicating Lawrence's design found that he did not get any power gain at all and so he asked Lawrence for advice. Lawrence advised him to omit the magnet and see what happened. He did this and immediately got the standard output, showing that both his input arrangement and his output measuring system both worked perfectly well. It then dawned on him that the stack of three magnets which he was using in the frame were just too strong, so he reduced the stack to just two magnets and immediately got a performance of COP = 1.5 (50% more power output than the input power).


Thane C. Heins.   Thane has developed, tested and patented a transformer arrangement where the output power of his prototype is thirty times greater than the input power. He achieves this by using a figure-of-eight double toroid transformer core. His Canadian patent CA2594905 is titled "Bi-Toroid Transformer" and dated 18th January 2009. The abstract says: The invention provides a means of increasing transformer efficiency above 100%. The transformer consists of a single primary coil and two secondary coils. The two secondary coils are set on a secondary toroidal core which is designed to be maintained at a lower magnetic resistance than the primary toroidal core throughout the entire operating range of the transformer. Thus, when the transformer secondary delivers current to a load, the resulting Back-EMF is not allowed to flow back to the primary due to the higher magnetic resistance of that flux path, instead, the secondary coil's Back-EMF follows the path of least magnetic resistance into the adjacent secondary coil.

You will notice that in the following diagram, the secondary transformer frame on the right is much larger than the primary transformer frame on the left. This larger size produces a lower magnetic resistance or "reluctance" as it is known technically. This seems like a minor point but in fact it is not, as you will see from the test results.




In a conventional transformer, the power flowing in the primary winding induces power in the secondary winding. When the power in the secondary winding is drawn off to do useful work, a Back-EMF magnetic flux results and that opposes the original magnetic flux, requiring additional input power to sustain the operation.

In this transformer, that opposing magnetic flow is diverted through a larger magnetic frame which has a much lower resistance to magnetic flow and which, as a result, bleeds off the problem flux, sending it through secondary coil 2 in the diagram above. This pretty much isolates the input power from any opposition, resulting in a massive improvement in the operation efficiency.

In the patent document, Thane quotes a prototype test which had a primary coil winding with 2.5 ohms resistance, carrying 0.29 watts of power. The secondary coil 1 had a winding with 2.9 ohms resistance, receiving 0.18 watts of power. The Resistive load 1 was 180 ohms, receiving 11.25 watts of power. The secondary coil 2 had a winding with 2.5 ohms resistance, and received 0.06 watts of power. Resistive load 2 was 1 ohm, receiving 0.02 watts of power. Overall, the input power was 0.29 watts and the output power 11.51 watts, which is a COP of 39.6 and while the document does not mention it directly, the primary coil should be driven at it's resonant frequency.

A variation of this arrangement is to attach an outer toroid to the existing bi-toroid arrangement, like this:



This prototype, as you can see, is fairly simple construction, and yet, given an input power of 106.9 milliwatts, it produces an output power of 403.3 milliwatts, which is 3.77 times greater.

This is something which needs to be considered carefully. Conventional science say that "there is no such thing as a free meal" and with any transformer, you will get less electrical power out of it than you put into it. Well, this simple looking construction demonstrates that this is not the case, which shows that some of the dogmatic statements made by present day scientists are completely wrong.

This version of Thane's transformer is made like this:



The way that off-the-shelf transformers work at the moment is like this:



When a pulse of input power is delivered to Coil 1 (called the "Primary winding"), it creates a magnetic wave which passes around the frame or "yoke" of the transformer, passing though Coil 2 (called the "Secondary winding") and back to Coil1 again as shown by the blue arrows. This magnetic pulse generates an electrical output in Coil 2, which flows through the electrical load (lighting, heating, charging, video, or whatever) providing it with the power which it needs to operate.

This is all well and good but the catch is that the pulse in Coil 2 also generates a magnetic pulse, and unfortunately, it runs in the opposite direction, opposing the operation of Coil 1 and causing it to have to boost it's input power in order to overcome this backward magnetic flow:



This is what makes current scientific "experts" say that the electrical efficiency of a transformer will always be less than 100%.

Thane has overcome that limitation by the simple and elegant technique of diverting that backward pulse of magnetism and channelling it through an additional magnetic path of lower resistance to magnetic flow through it. The path is arranged so that Coil 1 has no option but to send it's power through the frame as before, but the return pulse takes a much easier path which does not lead back to Coil 1 at all. This boosts the performance way past the 100% mark, and 2,300% has been achieved quite readily. The additional path is like this:



Not shown in this diagram are the reverse pulses from Coil 3. These follow the easier outside path, opposing the unwanted back pulse from coil 2. The overall effect is that from Coil 1's point of view, the tiresome back pulses from Coil2 have suddenly disappeared, leaving Coil 1 to get on with the job of providing power without any hindrance.

This simple and elegant modification of the humble transformer, converts it into a free-energy device which boosts the power used to drive it and outputs much greater power. Congratulations are due to Thane for this technique.

At the present time there are two videos showing how this transformer works: here and here.



Theodore Annis & Patrick Eberly have produced a variation on this multiple-magnetic-path method which is shown in their US Patent Application 20090096219. They have opted to use a motionless reluctance switch which is a solid-state device which can block magnetic flow when energised. They have arranged one of their devices like this:



The ring shown in grey is a magnet which connects to the ring shown in yellow through two diagonal ‘reluctance’ (magnetic flow) switches. The yellow ring can carry magnetic flux and the control box marked 118 switches the diagonal strips on and off in turn, causing the magnetic flux to reverse it’s direction through the yellow ring. The coils wound on the yellow ring pick up this reversing magnetic flux and pass it out as an electric current. While only one pair of rings are shown here, the design allows for as many rings as are needed to be connected together as shown here:



The patent says: "The currently preferred motionless reluctance switch is described by Toshiyuki Ueno & Toshiro Higuchi, in their paper entitled "Investigation of the Dynamic Properties of a Magnetic Flux Control Device composed of Laminations of Magnetostrictive Piezoelectric Materials" - University of Tokyo 2004. As shown in Fig.4, this switch is made of a laminate of a Giant Magnetostrictive Material 42, a TbDyFe alloy, bonded on both sides by a Piezoelectric material 44, 46 to which electricity is applied. The application of electricity causes the reluctance of the piezoelectric material to increase.



The full patent is included in the Appendix.


Dietmar Wehr has an idea for an electricity generator which is a self-oscillating device with no moving parts, which generates electricity through induction. The device consists of two Y-shaped pieces of soft iron, three iron pillars and a permanent magnet as shown here:



The pillars and the permanent magnet separate the two Y-pieces, forming a simple, robust shape. The width of the three arms of the Y-pieces is important as the operation of the device depends on these dimensions. The iron pillars marked “A” and “B” have output coils wound on them. The iron pillar marked “C” has an input coil wound on it as shown here:



When the coil “C” is pulsed, the magnetic field generated by that pulse either strengthens the existing magnetic field caused by the permanent magnet or opposes it. Either way, the pulse causes a change in the magnetic field in the Y-pieces. The effect of that change moves away from the permanent magnet and reaches the branching point of the Y-pieces. Because the “B” arm provides a better magnetic path, the magnetic flow passes along it as shown by the red arrows here:



This change in magnetic flux, generates output power in coil “B”, powering then load attached to that winding. When the drive pulse is cut off, coil “B” develops a back-EMF current flowing in the opposite direction. That change in current generates a magnetic pulse indicated by the blue arrow. This magnetic pulse travels back along the arm of the Y-piece until it reaches the junction. At this point it has two possible paths, either back towards the permanent magnet, or left towards coil “A”. As the path to coil “A” is much broader than the path back to the magnet, the flux flows through coil “A”, generating output power in the load connected to coil “A”.

This results in situation where one input pulse generates two separate output pulses. It should be possible to make the drive circuitry the load of, say, coil “B” and have the device self-powered as well as powering load “A”, as shown here:



Using diodes, it should be possible to combine the outputs from the two output coils if that is preferred. It is not necessary to make the device self-powered, especially in the prototype testing stages. If it is self-powered, then it can be started by waving a permanent magnet across the coil “C” to generate the starting pulse.



Richard Willis.   On 28th May 2009 a European Patent application was filed by Richard Willis, entitled "Electrical Generator". During a TV interview, Richard stated that his design has COP=3600. Available commercially from his Canadian company and sold under the name "Magnacoster", early in 2010 his advertised pricing is US $4,200 for a unit which has four separate 100 amp 12V outputs, giving a combined maximum output power of 4.8 kilowatts. A larger unit is priced at US $6,000 with four separate 24V outlets providing a 9 kilowatt combined output. The house-powering unit which is supplied with a 12 kilowatt inverter to provide mains AC power and which gets connected direct to the circuit-breaker box of the house, is priced at US $15,000. One particularly interesting statement made by Richard is that the output power is at a higher frequency than the input power. He suggests that the electrical signal bounces around inside the device, multiplying the power as it goes and giving the output higher voltage and higher current than the input. The design of the device is most interesting as it is very simple. It is shown in his patent application WO 2009065219, a somewhat reworded copy of which is included in the Appendix to this eBook. Richard's web site is here. However, while Richard’s designs do indeed work, he appears to be experiencing problems with the output wiring melting due to the very high current, and more importantly, the generation of high levels of unwanted electromagnetic radiation. These problems appear to have prevented him from supplying any commercial units at this time.

The circuit is based on a pulsed coil and two magnets and it has a number of unusual features. The power supply is unusual:



Richard arranges it like this so that either DC or AC can be used as the input power and so he follows that arrangement with a diode bridge, followed by two more diodes as shown here:



This is an interesting arrangement when the input is DC as it would be a more usual arrangement to have the diode bridge only in the AC input section and not included for the DC input where it just drops the input voltage and wastes electrical power unnecessarily. Still, that is the way it is shown in the patent, so that is the way it is shown here.

The input power supply is fed to an electromagnet but is converted into a pulsed supply by the use of an interrupter switch which may be mechanical or electronic:



As can be seen, the arrangement is particularly simple although it is an unusual configuration with the electromagnet core touching one of the permanent magnets and not the other. The magnet and electromagnet poles are important, with the permanent magnet North poles pointing towards the electromagnet and when the electromagnet is powered up, it's South pole is towards the North pole of the permanent magnet which it is touching. This means that when the electromagnet is powered up, it's magnetic field strengthens the magnetic field of that magnet.

There is a one-centimetre gap at the other end of the electromagnet and it's North pole opposes the North pole of the second permanent magnet. With this arrangement, each electromagnet pulse has a major magnetic effect on the area between the two permanent magnets. In the diagram shown above, just a few turns of wire are shown on the electromagnet core. This is just for clarity and it does not mean that only a few turns should be used. The strength of the magnets, the electromagnet wire thickness and number of turns are related to each other and experimentation will be needed to determine the best combination.

The energy take-off from this device is shown here:



Richard states that the input power can be anywhere from under one volt to one million volts while the input current can be anything from under one amp to one million amps, so he clearly envisages a major range of constructions and components. The core material for the electromagnet is specified as ferrite, mumetal, permalloy, cobalt or any non-permeable metal material. It seems likely that iron filings embedded in epoxy resin is likely to be a suitable material as it can respond very rapidly to sharp pulses and it seems clear that in common with almost every other similar free-energy device, the rapidity of rise and fall of the power pulse is of major importance. Having said that, Richard states that the frequency of pulses in the output section is greater than the frequency of pulses applied to the input section. From this it seems likely that the device should be tuned so that the input pulses should be at a lower harmonic of the resonant frequency of the device. It is worth reading Richard's full description which is near the end of the Appendix.

A second version of the circuit looks like a modification of the John Bedini pulsed rotor battery charging circuit with a rotor substituting for the second permanent magnet:



This enhances the operation of the Bedini device by providing an initial magnetic field in the coil.


Silverhealtheu.   One of the EVGRAY yahoo forum members whose ID is ‘silverhealtheu’ has described a simple device which appears to be not unlike the Richard Willis generator above.



The device consists of an iron bar one inch (25 mm) in diameter and one foot (300 mm) long. At one end, there is a stack of five neodymium magnets and at the opposite end, a single neodymium magnet. At the end with the five magnets, there is a coil of wire which is strongly pulsed by a drive circuit. Down the length of the bar, a series of pick-up coils are positioned. Each of these coils picks up the same level of power that is fed to the pulsing coil and the combined output is said to exceed the input power.


Stephan W. Leben.   There is an interesting video posted on YouTube here where a contributor whose ID is "TheGuru2You" posts some really interesting information. He starts with a circuit produced by Alexander Meissner in 1913 and shown here:


Stephan states that he has built this circuit and can confirm that it is a self-resonating powering circuit. Once a twelve volt supply is connected to the input terminals, the transistor switches on powering the transformer which feeds repeating pulses to the base of the transistor, sustaining the oscillations. The rate of oscillation is governed by the capacitor marked "C" in the circuit diagram above and the coil across which it is connected.


Interestingly, if that capacitor is replaced by an electrolyser (which is effectively a capacitor with the water forming the dielectric between the plates of the capacitor), then the frequency of the circuit automatically adjusts to the resonant frequency of the electrolyser and it is suggested that this system should be able to perform electrolysis of water requiring only a low power input and automatically slaving itself to the varying resonant frequency of the electrolyser. As far as I am aware, this has not been confirmed, however, the voltage pulsers designed by John Bedini do slave themselves automatically to their load, whether it is a battery being charged, or an electrolyser performing electrolysis.

Stephan then suggests combining Alexander Meissner's circuit with Charles Flynn's magnetic amplification circuit. Here the transformer is switched to become the Charles Flynn oscillator winding plus a second winding placed alongside for magnetic coupling as shown here:


The transistor stage would be self-oscillating as before, the transformer now being made up of the red and blue coil windings. This oscillation would also oscillate the Flynn magnetic frame, producing an electrical output via the black coils at each end of the magnetic frame. This is, of course, an oscillating, or AC output, so the four diodes would produce a full-wave rectified (pulsating) DC current which is smoothed by the capacitor connected to the diodes.

This circuit could be started by touching a 12 volt source very briefly to the output terminals on the right. An alternative would be to wave a permanent magnet close to the red and blue coils as that would generate a voltage in the coils, quite sufficient to start the system oscillating and so, becoming self-sustaining. Stephan suggests using the piezo crystal from a lighter and connecting it to an extra coil to produce the necessary voltage spike when the coil is held close to the blue coil and the lighter mechanism clicked.

A surprising problem would be how to switch the device off since it runs itself. To manage this, Stephan suggests a two-pole On/Off switch to disconnect the output and prevent it supplying the input section of the circuit. To show whether or not the circuit is running, a Light-Emitting Diode ("LED") is connected across the output and the current flowing through it limited by a resistor of about 820 ohms.

Anyone wanting to try replicating this device will need to experiment with the number of turns in each coil and the wire diameter needed to carry the desired current. Stephan states that you need to have at least twice the weight of copper in the (black) output coils as there is in the (blue) input coils in order to allow the device produce excess power. The first page of the Appendix shows the current carrying capacity for each of the standard wire diameters commonly offered for sale. As this is a fairly recently released circuit, I am not aware of any replications of it at this time.



Floyd Sweet’s VTA.   Another device in the same category of permanent magnets with energised coils round it (and very limited practical information available) was produced by Floyd Sweet.   The device was dubbed “Vacuum Triode Amplifier” or “VTA” by Tom Bearden and the name has stuck, although it does not appear to be a particularly accurate description.

The device was capable of producing more than 1 kW of output power at 120 Volts, 60 Hz and is self-powered.   The output is energy which resembles electricity in that it powers motors, lamps, etc. but as the power increases through any load there is a temperature drop instead of the expected temperature rise.

When it became known that he had produced the device he became the target of serious threats, some of which were delivered face-to-face in broad daylight.   It is quite possible that the concern was due to the device tapping zero-point energy, which when done at high currents opens a whole new can of worms.   One of the observed characteristics of the device was that when the current was increased, the measured weight of the apparatus reduced by about a pound.   While this is hardly new, it suggests that space/time was being warped.   The German scientists at the end of WWII had been experimenting with this (and killing off the unfortunate people who were used to test the system) - if you have considerable perseverance, you can read up on this in Nick Cook’s inexpensive book “The Hunt for Zero-Point” ISBN 0099414988.

Floyd found that the weight of his device reduced in proportion to the amount of energy being produced.   But he found that if the load was increased enough, a point was suddenly reached where a loud sound like a whirlwind was produced, although there was no movement of the air.   The sound was heard by his wife Rose who was in another room of their apartment and by others outside the apartment.   Floyd did not increase the load further (which is just as well as he would probably have received a fatal dose of radiation if he had) and did not repeat the test.   In my opinion, this is a dangerous device and I personally, would not recommend anyone attempting to build one.   It should be noted that a highly lethal 20,000 Volts is used to ‘condition’ the magnets and the principles of operation are not understood at this time.   Also, there is insufficient information to hand to provide realistic advice on practical construction details.

On one occasion, Floyd accidentally short-circuited the output wires.   There was a bright flash and the wires became covered with frost.   It was noted that when the output load was over 1 kW, the magnets and coils powering the device became colder, reaching a temperature of 20 degrees Fahrenheit below room temperature.   On one occasion, Floyd received a shock from the apparatus with the current flowing between the thumb and the small finger of one hand.   The result was an injury akin to frostbite, causing him considerable pain for at least two weeks.

Observed characteristics of the device include:

1. The output voltage does not change when the output power is increased from 100W to 1 kW. 2. The device needs a continuous load of at least 25W. 3. The output falls in the early hours of the morning but recovers later on without any intervention. 4. A local earthquake can stop the device operating. 5. The device can be started in self-powered mode by briefly applying 9 Volts to the drive coils. 6. The device can be stopped by momentary interruption of the power to the power coils. 7. Conventional instruments operate normally up to an output of 1 kW but stop working above that output level, with their readings showing zero or some other spurious reading.

Information is limited, but it appears that Floyd’s device was comprised of one or two large ferrite permanent magnets (grade 8, size 150 mm x 100 mm x 25 mm) with coils wound in three planes mutually at right angles to each other (i.e. in the x, y and z axes).   The magnetisation of the ferrite magnets is modified by suddenly applying 20,000 volts from a bank of capacitors (510 Joules) or more to plates on each side of it while simultaneously driving a 1 Amp 60 Hz (or 50 Hz) alternating current through the energising coil.   The alternating current should be at the frequency required for the output.   The voltage pulse to the plates should be applied at the instant when the ‘A’ coil voltage reaches a peak. This needs to be initiated electronically.

It is said that the powering of the plates causes the magnetic material to resonate for a period of about fifteen minutes, and that the applied voltage in the energising coil modifies the positioning of the newly formed poles of the magnet so that it will in future, resonate at that frequency and voltage.   It is important that the voltage applied to the energising coil in this ‘conditioning’ process be a perfect sinewave.   Shock, or outside influence can destroy the ‘conditioning’ but it can be reinstated by repeating the conditioning process.   It should be noted that the conditioning process may not be successful at the first attempt but repeating the process on the same magnet is usually successful.   Once conditioning is completed, the capacitors are no longer needed.   The device then only needs a few milliwatts of 60 Hz applied to the input coil to give up to 1.5 kW at 60 Hz at the output coil.   The output coil can then supply the input coil indefinitely.

The conditioning process modifies the magnetisation of the ferrite slab.   Before the process the North pole is on one face of the magnet and the South pole on the opposite face.   After conditioning, the South pole does not stop at the mid point but extends to the outer edges of the North pole face, extending inwards from the edge by about 6 mm.   Also, there is a magnetic ‘bubble’ created in the middle of the North pole face and the position of this ‘bubble’ moves when another magnet is brought near it.

The conditioned slab has three coil windings:

1. The ‘A’ coil is wound first around the outer perimeter, each turn being 150 + 100 + 150 + 100 = 500 mm long (plus a small amount caused by the thickness of the coil former material).   It has about 600 turns of 28 AWG (0.3 mm) wire.

2. The ‘B’ coil is wound across the 100 mm faces, so one turn is about 100 + 25 + 100 + 25 = 250 mm (plus a small amount for the former thickness and clearing coil ‘A’).   It has between 200 and 500 turns of 20 AWG (1 mm) wire.

3. The ‘C’ coil is wound along the 150 mm face, so one turn is 150 + 25 + 150 + 25 = 350 mm (plus the former thickness, plus clearance for coil ‘A’ and coil ‘B’).   It has between 200 and 500 turns of 20 AWG (1 mm) wire and should match the resistance of coil ‘B’ as closely as possible.

Coil ‘A’ is the input coil.   Coil ‘B’ is the output coil.   Coil ‘C’ is used for the conditioning and for the production of gravitational effects.




Much of this information and photographs of the original device can be found on this website where a paper by Michael Watson gives much practical information.   For example, he states that an experimental set up which he made, had the ‘A’ coil with a resistance of 70 ohms and an inductance of 63 mH, the ‘B’ coil, wound with 23 AWG wire with a resistance of 4.95 ohms and an inductance of 1.735 mH, and the ‘C’ coil, also wound with 23 AWG wire, with a resistance of 5.05 ohms and an inductance of 1.78 mH.

Recently, some additional information on Floyd Sweet's device, has been released publicly by an associate of Floyd's who goes just by his first name of "Maurice" and who, having reached the age of seventy has decided that it is time to release this additional information. Maurice says: 
After observing the comments made over the past year regarding the Sweet-VTA Energy Device, I decided to "come out of the woodwork" and explain what basically is NOT known regarding Floyd Sweet ("Sparky") and his energy device.

Keep in mind that I am 70 years old, quite computer illiterate, my background Being mainly Political Science (Graduate Degree); consulting with State Legislatures; Mental Health (former Executive Director of five clinics); and, acquiring Venture Capital for High Tech. Equipment (such as medical equipment) and various Projects. My story is very unusual and strange, but, nevertheless TRUE! At my age I have no one to impress with what I am about to tell you. My only interest is to correct error where possible and to make certain information known!

Remember, that I have never had any education in electronics. This was a real advantage for me because I did not have any electrical principles which I had to UN-LEARN in anything that Floyd told us. Unfortunately, one of my brothers who trained for 35 years in electronics was "blown away" when Floyd told him that "he needed to reverse the concepts which he was taught about the action of an electron and treat it like it was positive". Therefore, for Sparky's modelling, electrons were flowing and acting in the opposite direction to what was normally modelled by a trained physicist. See what I mean? The Dean of the School of Science of MIT that verified that Sparky had an MSEE degree and came third in his class of more than two hundred.

Hopefully sincere researchers will be able to obtain some useful information in what I attempt to explain in the future that will help them to duplicate what Floyd had. In this respect, one day after Floyd had repeatedly asked me: "What is this device Maurice?" and I repeatedly gave him the wrong answer, saying that it was an energy device, I finally realised that what was important to him was that he considered the device to be a TIME MACHINE - his emphasis was NOT on the energy. He told me never to forget that the most important thing was that the device was a "Time Machine".

Maurice draws attention to the fact that Floyd Sweet graduated as an M.S.E.E. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1969 and his thesis "Dynamics of Magnetic Domains" is considered by the M.I.T. scientific community to be unparalleled in magnetic concepts. He received the coveted Dean's Award for his scientific research and his academic level in Electrical Engineering achievement ranks third in the history of the M.I.T. School of Science. He has an extraordinary talent in the area of Engineering Mathematics not to mention his concept of electromagnetic and related electrical phenomena and understanding of abstract intangibles needed to predict the unforeseen.

Maurice says: In about 1988 John, who my two brothers and I were involved with in the High Tech field realised that my brother, who was a Doctor (Doctor brother), was interested in negative energy devices for the treatment of the physical body (similar to Rife/Tesla Frequency Machines). John had formerly been employed at NASA with Floyd Sweet. John lived in California close to Floyd (Sherman Oaks).

My doctor brother and I were introduced to Floyd by John and we waited patiently for the time when we could see the VTA device. We saw it on the table at his house during various visits but it was not operating. Floyd was like many inventors who played games with you. Each time we would drive 13 hours to see him thinking we could see the device operating, but he would have some excuse for not turning it on, or he would just ignore the purpose of our visit.

On one visit, I looked over at Floyd and he was “showing off” his Barium Ferrite bar magnet. The magnet was approximately 1/2” thick, 7” long and 3” wide. He had a small piece of metal that was standing on the top of the magnet at a 45 degree angle. As I recall, he claimed that the 45 degree angle was needed in the treatment of the magnet so that it could capture Scalar waves. The magnets were mainly functioning as a “gate” for the Scalar waves. Additionally, if you placed a piece of thin “flexible” (ribbon type) metal flat on the top of the magnet, the middle of the “ribbon metal” would be “sucked down” flat at the middle of the magnet and both ends of the “ribbon metal” would be bowed-up at each end of the magnet. Also, I came to understand from another inventor that we introduced later on to Floyd that the “figure eight” design (flux flow?) on the top of the magnet played an important part in the functioning of the magnet - I don’t really know about the concept and can’t relay any additional information.

On another visit, Floyd demonstrated the flowing flux of the magnet. He had a TV monitor and he would place the magnet by the screen and you could see all the beautiful colours of the flux as it moved across the monitor screen. My electronics brother told me that Floyd had told him that he had a way of treating the magnet by calibrating the Scalar wave angle coming in using the TV monitor. A side note is that Floyd delighted in telling people, when they asked how he treated his magnets, they should get the magnets real hot first. This apparently “screwed up” the magnetism and he enjoyed doing this for some weird reason!

Finally, after 12 trips across the California Desert, Floyd agreed to show us the Device in operation. In his defence, Floyd did claim that on some earlier planned demonstrations that his magnets had been “pulverized” by artificial earthquakes coming up through Mexico. He designed some type of buffer in the Device that eliminated the problem, but, it was an on-going problem for quite a period of time. This reminds me now that I must digress because I need to tell you about the Government (or who?) involvement with us.

When we first started to visit Floyd, our phones were all “tapped” - I do not know by whom. My electronics brother worked full-time with the Air National Guard and his specialty was electronic Security, Crypto, etc. tied in with SAC bases in our area and the surrounding States. Additionally, he had set-up the “clean room” for the President of the United States when he visited our State. I mention this because even my electronics brother was doubtful in the beginning that we were all being monitored. On one occasion, my doctor brother had his complete prior telephone conversation played back to him when he answered the phone (twenty minutes later) - I think it was probably some type of “screw-up” by whoever was monitoring our phones. My biggest complaint was the consistent early morning 3am call and then a “hang-up” when you answered - for what reason I don't know other than for harassment purposes. I give you the above information so that you can understand the seriousness of what we were involved with.

Floyd’s Energy Device was mainly three things:

(1) It was a healing device - negative electricity - negative time. In theory, you could re-set the template in your DNA with this energy source and therefore cleanse the body of all impurities that your ancestors had acquired over time. Additionally, you could kill current disease (virus/bacteria) in the body by using the right frequencies, and this did not disturb any other body cells. This is why Floyd needed my doctor brother to help him arrive at the proper medical protocol for using his technology. Additionally, if you note in the Payroll Expenses attachment of this e-mail, a one-line item of expenditure is for AIDS-related materials in which Floyd and my doctor brother had a real interest. My doctor brother had an agreement with Floyd to build three medical interferometers which would all have a noble gas plasma inside them. I actually witnessed one of these devices in operation. At the end of the (approximately 20 inch long) tube-like structure you could feel a pulsing being emitted at the end of the tube on to whichever part of the body you wanted treated. My doctor brother had ordered two Interferometers from Floyd which were about 4 feet long.

(2) The VTA energy device is probably the world’s worst weapon. Floyd claimed that like Nicola Tesla, you could cause “artificial earthquakes” - besides destroying buildings. As I understood from people in the intelligence world, which we de-briefed after we saw the device operate, three countries have what is called the “Tesla Cannon”; Russia, America and I never found out who the third country was. As mentioned earlier, this energy source is what disabled Floyd’s VTA equipment over many months until he got his “buffer” built into his device. Further, this is why the Federal Government had such an interest in what we were doing with Floyd during the time we spent with him.

(3) The device was an Energy source for the home (could change negative energy to positive energy). It was also an energy source for the car and many other purposes. The cost of building one of these energy devices was only about US $200.00 - incredible!

Description of the VTA device:
On the day that we finally got to see the device operating, my doctor brother and I had finally convinced my electronics brother to accompany us to Sherman Oaks, California to see the demonstration. My doctor brother and I had made ALL the preliminary trips to see Floyd minus our electronics brother because he was literally a “doubting Thomas”, being heavily involved in the electronics field and full of Maxwell’s Theories of electronics, etc. Yes, you could say that he was a traditional electronics person. But, for this reason, we needed my electronics brother to be our DEBUNKER in case the device was not what it was portrayed to be. We had one other witness "Gary", an associate of mine who was to bring in the venture capital funding if the device proved to be as good as claimed.

The day when we witnessed the VTA device operating is a day which I shall never forget. To actually see a device working, which cost only $200 dollars to make and which could create all the clean energy you would ever need, was “awesome”. I know I have been “altered” ever since knowing that such a device existed. Now for a brief description of the Device:

These are not exact measurements but only approximations. The device was on what I believe to be "Plexi glass" (acrylic). Nothing was hidden. You could see everything, top and bottom through the plastic. The Plexi glass structure was approximately 18” square. We were allowed to pick-up the device and carry it around Floyd’s living room so you could see that there were no other electrical connections to it.

On top of the Plexi glass case there were three toroidal coils wound with thin windings of varnished copper wire. There were two barium ferrite bar magnets (approx. 7”x 3”x 1/2”). Present was a volt meter which displayed 120v when the device was turned on. Also, there was an ampere meter which measured the electrical currents flowing when Floyd switched different things on-and-off during the demonstration. The items used for load demonstration included the burner part of the stove, a hair dryer, a fan, and five one-hundred watt globe lights. The fascinating thing to me about the light demo was that the lights had a glow like the overhead lights in your kitchen - a very soft, COOL appearance. Not the look of a traditional bright light bulb such as you have in your lamp on a traditional night stand.

I forgot to mention that the device was started by attaching a 9-volt battery which, I understand, started the magnetic flux in motion. Floyd would then connect the “pigtail” on the device and it would become just one circular energy unit.

As Floyd put more load on the device, the ambient temperature around the device (coils) would start to get lower. Additionally, depending on how much load you added, the device would start to lose some of its weight and you then had levitation beginning to take place. I should note at this point that on one meeting with Floyd, his wife Rose, used some expletives when telling how one day, Floyd kept adding more-and-more load to the device and he almost “brought down” the Apartment Complex he lived in at Sherman Oaks. He turned off the equipment, went out on his patio and pretended that it was a California Earthquake! His neighbours never did know what he had in his apartment. In this respect, I never did find out what the big piece of equipment was in his bedroom. It literally stretched from the ceiling to the floor. It was so heavy that the floor was bowed-in and sunken and that “big sucker” had a growling noise when it was on - I never did find out what it was. It was big like some kind of transformer.

The Rest of The Story:
You are probably wondering what the article on Ron Brandt is about. It’s a long story, but after I moved Ron and his laboratory all the way from the mouth of Zion's National Park to “someplace” Oregon to hide him out - he was using “Tachyon Beams" with his medical equipment and after only a couple of minutes the “Black Helicopters” would show up - soooo at my doctor brother’s request I moved Ron to Oregon. At the time I thought Ron was a “real flake” because when I helped him forward his mail from a small town in Southern Utah, he asked me how to spell the word “electric” so he could put in the full address of “Brandt Electric”. Further, Ron said he was only here on this Earth until 2012 - It was now 1987-88 - and then he had to leave to go to another planet! I now wanted to shoot my doctor brother who got me into this whole moving-Ron thing! My doctor brother told me that Ron had to move fast because Ron had told him that an earthquake was coming in the next few days - Right!

Well, guess what happened a few days later? The largest earthquake in many years in that particular location took place and it even wiped out the hot springs at the Resorts along the Virgin River which runs through Zion's National Park and through the small town of Virgin where Ron lived. I since found out that Ron had invented earthquake equipment along with Philo T. Farnsworth’s (Inventor of Television) grandson and six months ahead, they had actually predicted the previous great earthquake in California and their prediction was off by only six minutes! The Government is insisting that they want the equipment, so that is one of the reasons for everyone “hiding out”.

Now, why am I giving you all this preliminary information regarding Ron Brandt? Well it seems that Ron has a Magnet Motor which weighs only 75 pounds and which can generate power equivalent to that of a 300 horsepower internal combustion engine. Also, the motor can be a retro-fit in any existing car without the need to design a whole new car. This is the connection I will explain later regarding Ron who could not even spell “electric” and Floyd who was placed 3rd in all the inventions to ever come out of MIT - All I can say is “WOW”!

EVENTS SURROUNDING FLOYD’S DEATH:
I will now leave it up to you to decide whether or not Floyd died of natural causes or was “taken out” by some person, group, or some Government.

In the summer of 1994, my doctor brother suddenly “passed out” at one of our Venture Capital meetings and was rushed to the hospital. After an MRI of his head, it was discovered that he had a brain tumour and it was of the worst kind (very fast growing). This seemed impossible as my doctor brother had always monitored his body daily as he did an occasional experiment on himself with certain medicines. By 11th November 1994, my doctor brother had died. He told us prior to death that “they” (whoever "they" were) had succeeded in placing the fastest growing cancer tumour into his brain - How? - I have no idea! I never did find out. What is important to the free-energy field was that my doctor brother was in daily contact with Floyd and his Associates regarding the energy devices. I was not that important and basically only accompanied my doctor brother to meetings and kind of “got lost in the woodwork”. Intellectually, I really was not a threat to anyone. I was only there at meetings to help acquire venture capital.

On the very day that my doctor brother died, my electronics brother and I were at the home of John, (Floyd’s Associate from NASA) who for some strange reason had followed my brothers and I to our home city where we lived, bought a home and took up residence there. We did not complain as he was our go-between with Floyd. But the move still seemed strange to me. The reason my electronics brother and I were with John is that John had arranged a conference call with Floyd and us, to see if there was a possibility for Floyd to make some type of energy device which could power the magnet motor that Ron Brandt had. My brothers and I had all the contractual rights to Ron’s Magnet Motor which could be used in any car. I thought to myself that now I can really find out how “real” Ron (who could not even spell “electric”) was when I matched him up with Floyd from MIT. I could not believe what I heard as Floyd and Ron conversed at the highest electronic levels - "who the 'hell' is Ron?" I thought. Floyd agreed that he would have no problem doing the prototype for Ron’s Magnet Motor to power the car.

Floyd mainly worked with my electronics brother on this project as Floyd needed old vacuum tubes which my electronics brother had to acquire for the device and my electronics brother was a real “bench” person which Floyd seemed to favour over academic Electrical Engineers.

During the Spring of 1995, while Floyd was working on our energy device for the car, John (from NASA) and Floyd were elated that there was supposed to be an announcement from the White House regarding Floyd’s VTA Energy Device. It seems that Floyd was a past friend of Senator John Glen (the former NASA astronaut) and he had given Glen one of the energy devices. Unfortunately, Glen gave the device to the Department of Energy, who, according to Floyd, passed the device on to General Motors. Floyd was furious and as I understood Floyd was then going to sue GM for two hundred million dollars. As far as I know Floyd never got the device back. I will always remember the extreme disappointment on the faces of Floyd and John when they realised that the trip to Washington DC for the announcement, was not going to take place.

In July 1995, Floyd let us know that the Energy Device was finished and we were to take possession of it. Floyd now lived in Desert Palms, California and that is where we would pick it up. After much thought, we decided we better not board a plane with the device as we were not sure of any magnetic effects on the instruments of the plane in having it transported - it was new technology which still had many questions to be answered. Instead, we decided to drive our car to Desert Palms and bring the device back ourselves.

Floyd called us the day before we were to leave and asked us if he could keep the device for a couple of extra days. He said he had “someone” coming (I thought he said China) and wanted to show them the device. We said ok, we would plan to pick it up when he was done.

A day later, at about 7:00 am Pacific time, there was a frantic call from Floyd’s wife Violet (Floyd’s wife Rose had died and he had re-married) to my electronics brother’s house. My electronics brother was not at home and my sister-in-law, his wife, took the call from Violet. Violet was very traumatised when she told my sister-in-law that Floyd was dead. There was a lot of shouting going on in the background. The people who were there claimed they were from the FBI and that Floyd’s equipment belonged to them. Rose was extremely confused with the death of Floyd and people she had never seen before taking all the equipment out of her house to waiting vans. She asked my sister-in-law what to do and my sister-in-law had NO idea as she was not aware of what my brothers and I had going on!

Violet also said that about 5:00 pm the previous night, two men whom she had never seen before, showed up to see Floyd. Floyd was with them for a period of time and then they left. At about 8:00 pm, Floyd was having a cup of coffee when he fell out of the chair on to the floor. She called for an ambulance and when they arrived they would not let her ride with them. Violet was 75 years old and didn’t drive. About twenty minutes later the ambulance called back to Violet and told her they didn’t think Floyd was going to “make it”!! As I understand it, Floyd’s body was cremated. How soon afterwards, I don’t know. The end result for my brothers and I is that ALL of our energy equipment that Floyd made for us was taken - By Whom??

Who were the two men who met with Floyd a few hours before his death? Was anything put in Floyd’s coffee by these men? Violet said she had never seen them before and they seemed strange! Why could Violet not go with her husband in the ambulance? I have seen it happen many times when family is allowed, especially where age is concerned!

How did the FBI (if that is who they were) know that Floyd was dead and show up in the very early morning (about 6:00 am) just hours after he died late at night?

YOU BE THE JUDGE - ALL I KNOW IS THAT ALL OF OUR ENERGY DEVICES (MEDICAL AND CAR-MAGNET MOTOR) ARE GONE!!! WHERE ARE THEY AND WHO ARE THE ONES RESPONSIBLE FOR TAKING THEM ??
Here are some of the known facts about Floyd's energy device: 

The invention is a unified-field device and so combines both electromagnetic and gravitational effects in the same unit. For a tiny power input of just 0.31 milliwatt, the unit produces over 500 watts of output power, which is an energy gain of more than 1,500,000. The prototype, has no moving parts, is about 6" x 6" x 4" in size and taps an inexhaustible source of energy. To date, up to one kilowatt of power has been produced in actual tests which required only tiny input power to make the device operate.

Our normal day-to-day energy is "positive energy". The energy produced by Floyd's device is "negative energy" but in spite of this, it powers ordinary equipment, producing light and heat as normal. A device like this has to have a major impact on the world as we know it, because:

1. It can be easily built. The components are quite ordinary and the cost of the materials in the demonstration prototype was only a few hundred US dollars and it was constructed in just a few hours, using simple tools and equipment.

2. The test results are so impressive that there can be no question of errors of measurement when the energy gain is of the order of 1,500,000 times.

3. It demonstrates with laboratory precision that the 'law' of Conservation of Energy does not appear to apply during the operation of this device, which is something which most scientists have difficulty in accepting.

The device has very high performance. When a 1-milliwatt 60Hz sine wave is fed into it, the out put powers 500 watts of standard mains-voltage light bulbs, producing both heat and light. The device has a positive-feedback loop so it's gain is depends directly on the output load and the input power remains unchanged. So to increase the output power, all that is necessary is to connect extra light bulbs or equipment across the output.

When a motor was connected in addition to the light bulbs, the motor ran perfectly well under load and the light bulbs remained as bright as ever. Because it is a "cold electricity" device, the wires feeding the load can be very much smaller in diameter than would be normal for the load and these wires run cold at all times. When the power hits the resistance of the filaments of the light bulbs, it converts into conventional "hot electricity" and the filaments perform in exactly the same way as they do when powered by "hot electricity". 


In 1988, Floyd produced a paper which he considered to be very important. The following text is an attempt to reproduce the content his highly mathematical style of presentation. If you are not into complicated mathematical presentations, then just move on past and don't worry about the following technical material, or alternatively, take a quick skim through it and don't bother with the maths. Floyd says: 


What is thought of as "empty space" actually contains almost everything in the universe. It is home to all kinds of invisible energy fields and is seething with all kinds of very real forces.

Every kind of matter produces an energy field and these energy fields interact with each other in many complicated ways, producing all sorts of additional effects. These energy fields are the "stuff" of space, or as it is sometimes described, "the virtual vacuum". Space is packed full of all sorts of things but because it does not contain air, we tend to think that there is nothing at all in it. Most people think that "vacuum" means "without air" but when scientists speak of space as "the vacuum" they do not mean that at all, and they use the word "vacuum" to describe to describe (loosely speaking) the place which is between the stars and planets of the universe, and Floyd refers to that vast place as "the vacuum", so please don't think that it has anything to do with air, as it definitely doesn't.

Floyd says: We all think that we know what light is, but the reality is that a particle of light is nothing more than a large interference in the electromagnetic field. Unless it interacts with matter or with another field, any electromagnetic field with not be changed in any way by the vacuum. Electromagnetic fields are a fundamental part of the structure of the vacuum itself. The whole universe is permeated by a constant magnetic field. That field is made up of countless numbers of North and South pole magnets in a completely random scatter.

Einstein has pointed out that E = mC2 which is one way of saying that energy and matter are interchangeable (or are two different faces of the same thing). The energy everywhere in the universe is so great that new particles of matter pop into existence and drop back into their energy form many trillions of times per second. Actually, they exist for such a very short time that calling them "particles" is not really appropriate, so perhaps "virtual particles" might be a better description.

However, if we generate a moving magnetic field, it alters the random nature of this energy in the tiny part of the vacuum where we happen to be, and the vacuum energy becomes much less random and allows a very large amount of vacuum energy to be drawn into our equipment and do what we think of as "useful work" - producing heat and light, powering motors and vehicles, etc. This was proved in laboratory experiments during the week of 19th June 1988 and it is the underlying operating principle of my "Phase-Conjugated Vacuum Triode" device.

The energy produced by this device is "negative energy" which is the reverse of the energy with which we are familiar. The spark caused by a short-circuit in a negative energy system is excessively bright and cold and it produces a barely audible hiss with no explosive force. Melting of wires does not occur and this type of negative current passes through the human body with only the feeling of a chill.

Wires which carry a lot of negative energy remain cool at all times and so tiny wires can feed equipment with hundreds of watts of power. This has been demonstrated in the laboratory and the source of energy is unlimited as it is the virtual vacuum of space itself.

The Nature of Space:
Space itself is the ability to accommodate energy. Consider for a moment, the following illustration:
A signal (energy) is transmitted from point "A" to point "B" which are separated by a finite distance. Consider three periods of time:

1. The signal is launched from point A.
2. The signal resides in the space between point A and point B.
3. The signal arrives at point B.

If 3. occurs simultaneously with 1. we say that the signal has travelled at infinite velocity. If that were the case, then the signal never resided in the intervening space and therefore there must be no space between point A and point B and so both points A and B must be at the same location. For real space to exist between the two points, it is necessary that a signal moving between them has to get "lost" to both points, that is, out of touch with both points for a finite period of time.

Now, we know that for real space to exist between two points, a signal passing between them has to move at a finite speed between them and if it can't do that, then there can't be any space between them. If space can't accommodate a signal passing between two points, then it has no function and no reality. We are left then with the only real space, the home of the real and virtual vacuum - space which supports a finite, non-zero signal velocity.

A similar argument applies to the impedance of space. A medium can only accommodate positive energy if the medium resists it to a reasonable degree. Neither an infinitely strong spring nor an infinitely weak spring can absorb energy by being compressed. Neither an infinitely large mass nor an infinitely small mass can absorb or accommodate energy imparted by a collision and the same holds true for space. Energy cannot enter a space of zero impedance any more than a force can bear on a mass of zero magnitude. Similarly, energy could not enter space which has an infinite impedance. It follows therefore, that real space must have:

1. Finite propagation velocity and
2. Finite impedance.

Another way of looking at this is instead of considering the actual speed of propagation of a signal through space, to consider the length of time "t" which it takes the signal to pass through that part of space. We can think of a section of space as being, say, 1 nanosecond wide if it takes a signal 1 nanosecond to traverse it. That is, the energy or signal entering that part of space, leaves it again 1 nanosecond later. Signal propagation speed in the space in which we live is at the speed of light.

General Description of Energy Transfer:
Consider energy flowing straight and level down a transmission line. The energy does not "know" the width of the channel through which it is passing. If the energy flow reaches a point where the conductivity of the channel lowers but the size and shape of the channel remain the same, then not as much energy can flow and some gets reflected back along the channel. The energy current will not "know" if (a) the conductivity has changed or (b) the geometry has changed. The energy current can change direction very easily and so as far as it is concerned, the change caused by (a) is equivalent to the change caused by (b).

The channel through which the energy flows has width and height and the width divided by the height is called the "aspect ratio" of the channel. Energy current has an aspect ratio and if that aspect ratio is forced to change, then some of the flowing energy will reflect so as to keep the overall aspect ratio unchanged.

The aspect ratio of energy current is much like the aspect ratio of space itself. While the aspect ratio of space itself can change, it's fundamental velocity of "C" the speed of light in space can't really change. That speed is just our way of visualising time delay when energy resides in a region of space. Uniform space has only two parameters:

(1) Aspect ratio and
(2) Time delay

Aspect ratio defines the shape (but not the magnitude) of any energy flow which enters a given region of space. Velocity or length define the time during which that energy can be accommodated in a region of space.



Does an energy flow travel unimpeded through an interface, or does a large part of it get reflected? Space has quiet zones through which energy glides virtually unreflected. It also has noisy zones where the energy current becomes incoherent, bounces around and splits apart. These noisy zones in space either have either rapidly changing geometry or rapidly changing impedance.

Electromagnetic Energy:
The rate of flow of energy through a surface can be calculated using "E" the Electric field, and "H" the Magnetic field intensity. The energy flow through space is E x H per unit area (of it's "conduit's" cross-sectional area) and the energy density is E x H / C where C is the speed of light in space.

If there happen to be two signals of exactly the same strength, passing through each other in opposite directions in such a way that their "H" fields cancel out, then if each has a strength of E/2 and H/2, the energy density will be E x H / 2C and it will have the appearance of a steady E-field. In the same way, if the E fields cancel out, the result will appear to be a steady "H" field.

Modern physics is based on the faulty assumption that electromagnetics contains two kinds of energy: electric and magnetic. This leads to the Baroque view of physical reality. Under that view, energy seems to be associated with the square of the field intensity, rather than a more reasonable view that it is directly to the field intensity. It is worth remembering that neither Einstein nor most modern physicists were, or are, familiar with the concept of "energy current" described here. However, their work still survives by ignoring the energy current concept, scalar electromagnetics, the works of Tom Bearden, kaluza-Klein and others who dispute Heaviside's interpretations of Maxwell's equations.

The Fallacy of Displacement Current: 
Conventional electromagnetic theory proposes that when an electric current flows down a wire into a capacitor, it spreads out across the plate, producing an electric charge on the plate which in turn, leads to an electric field between the plates of the capacitor. The valuable concept of continuity is then retained by postulating a displacement current "after Maxwell". This current is a manipulation of the electric field "E" between the plates of the capacitor, the field having the characteristics of electric current, thus completing the flow of electricity in the circuit. This approach allows Kirchoff's laws and other valuable concepts to be retained even though superficially, it appears that at the capacitor there is a break in the continuous flow of electric current.

The flaw in this model appears when we notice that we notice that the current entered the capacitor at only one point on the capacitor plate. We are then left with the major difficulty of explaining how the electric charge flowing down the wire suddenly distributes itself uniformly across the entire capacitor plate at a velocity in excess of the speed of light. This paradoxical situation is created by a flaw in the basic model. Work in high-speed logic carried out by Ivor Catt has shown that the model of lumped capacitance is faulty and displacement current is an artefact of the faulty model. Since any capacitor behaves in a similar way to a transmission line, it is no more necessary to postulate a displacement current for the capacitor than it is necessary to do so for a transmission line. The removal of "displacement current" from electromagnetic theory has been based on arguments which are independent of the classic dispute over whether the electric current causes the electromagnetic field or vice versa.

The Motional E-Field:
Of all of the known fields; electric, magnetic, gravitational and motional E-field, the only ones incapable of being shielded against are the induced motional E-field and the gravitational field. The nature of the motionally-induced electric field is quite unique. In order to understand it more fully, we must start by discarding a few misleading ideas. When magnetic flux is moved perpendicularly across a conductor, an electromotive force ("e.m.f.") is electromagnetically induced "within" the conductor. "Within" is a phrase which comes from the common idea of comparing the flow of electric current within a wire to the flow of water in a pipe. This is a most misleading comparison. The true phenomenon taking place has little been thought of as involving the production of a spatially- distributed electric field. We can see that the model's origins are likely to have arising from the operation called "flux cutting" which is a most misleading term. A better term "time-varying flux modulation" does not imply any separation of lines of flux. Truly, lines of flux always form closed loops and are expressed mathematically as line integrals.

It is a fallacy to use the term "cutting" which implies time-varying separation which does not in fact ever occur. A motionally-induced E-field is actually created within the space occupied by the moving magnetic flux described above. The field is there whether or not a conductor is present in the space. In terms of a definition, we can say that when magnetic flux of vector intensity B-bar is moved across a region of space with vector velocity V-bar, an electromagnetically induced electric field vector B x V appears in the space at right angles to both B-bar and V-bar. Therefore:

E = B-bar x V-bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (1)


It is this field which is related to gravity and which is virtually unshieldable. This field may be called the Motional E-field. According to Tom Bearden, "It seems that the charged particles in the atom act like tiny magnets and their motion in the space surrounding the atom would create this motional E-field". The fields created by both the positive and negative charges would cancel to some degree, but due to the high orbital velocity of the negative electron relative to that of the positive proton, the induced field of the electron would dominate the resulting field. The field produced as a result of these charges would vary in proportion to the inverse square of the distance as gravity does. The field produced by the translational motion of the charges would vary inversely as the cube of distance. This concept totally unites the electromagnetic and gravitational field theories and accounts for the strong and weak force within the atom.

Field Super-Position and the Vacuum Triode:
Electromagnetic induction with no measurable magnetic field is not new. It is well known that in the space surrounding a properly wound toroidal coil, there is no magnetic field. This is due to the superposition of the fields. However, when alternating current is surging through a transformer, an electric field surrounds it. When we apply the principle of super-position to the vacuum triode, it becomes more obvious how the device is operating.

The principle of super-position states that "in order to calculate the resultant intensity of superimposed fields, each field must be dealt with individually as though the others were not present" The resultant is produced by the vector addition of each of the fields considered on its own. Consider for a moment, the construction of the triode which includes two bi-filar coils located within the fields of two conditioned magnets. When the current in one half of the conductors in the coils (that is, just one strand of the twin windings in each coil) is increasing, both the current and the magnetic field follow the right-hand rule. The resulting motional E-field would be vertical to both and directed inwards. At the same time, the current in the other strand of each winding is decreasing and both the current and the magnetic field also follow the right-hand rule. The resulting motional E-field is again vertical to both, and directed inwards. So, the resultant combined field intensity is double the intensity produced by either one of the conductors considered on its own. Expressed mathematically, this is:

E = (B x V) + (-B x -V) or

E = 2 (B x V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (2)


Where:
E is the electric field intensity
B is the magnetic field intensity and
V is the electron drift velocity

(B x V), the first term in the equation, represents the flow of the magnetic field when the electrons are moving in one direction, while (-B x -V), the second term in the equation, defines the flow of the magnetic field when the electrons are moving in the other direction. This indicates that field intensity is directly proportional to the square of the current required by the load placed on the device. This is due to it's proportional relationship with the virtual value of the magnetic field which theory states is proportional to the current. Electrometer readings were always close to parabolic, indicating that the source was of infinite capacity. It was further determined through experiment, that the magnetic field does not change with temperature. Also, there is no reason yet identified, which would lead one to believe that electron drift velocity changes. It has been found remarkable that the vacuum triode runs approximately 20oF below ambient.

Induced Electromotive Force - Positive Energy: When an e.m.f. ("electromotive force") is applied to a closed metallic circuit, current flows. The e.m.f. along a closed path "C" in space is defined as the work per unit charge (that is, W / Q) done by the electromagnetic fields on a small test charge moved along path C. Since work is the line integral of Force ("F"), the work per unit charge is the line integral of force per unit charge (in Newtons per Coulomb) we have:



The scalar product "(F/Q) x dtdl" is the product of (F/Q) x Cosθ x dl where θ denotes the angle between the vectors F/Q and dl.

The electric force per unit charge is the electric field intensity ("E") in volts per metre. The magnetic force per unit charge is V x B where "V" denotes the velocity of the test charge in metres per second and "B" denotes the magnetic flux density in webers per metre squared. In terms of the smaller angle θ between V and B, the cross product of V and B is a vector having the magnitude VBSinθ. The direction of vector V x B is at right angles to the plane which contains vectors V and B in accordance with the right-hand rule (that is, V x B is in the direction of the thumb while the fingers curl through the angle θ from V towards B). Since the total force per unit charge is E + VB, the total e.m.f. in terms of the fields is:



It appears from equation (4) that the e.m.f. depends on the forward velocity with which the test charge moves along the path C. This, however, is not the case. If V and dl in equation (4) have the same direction, then their associated scalar product is zero. So, only the component of V which is not aligned with dl (that is, with θ = 0), can contribute to the e.m.f. This component has value only if the differential path length dl has a sideways motion. So, V in equation (4), represents the sideways motion of dl, if there is any. The fields E and B in equation (4) could well be represented as functions of time as well as functions of the space co-ordinates. In addition, the velocity V of each differential path length dl, may vary with time. However, equation (4) correctly expresses the e.m.f. or voltage drop along path C as a function of time. That component of the e.m.f. consisting of the line integral V x B is the motional E-field since it has value only when path C is ,moving through a magnetic field, traversing lines of magnetic flux. For stationary paths, there is no motional E-field and the voltage drop is simply the integral of the electric field "E". Devices which separate charges, generate e.m.f.s and a familiar example of this is a battery which utilises chemical forces to separate charge. Other examples include the heating of a thermocouple, exposure of a photovoltaic cell to incident light or the rubbing together of different material to produce electrostatic charge separation. Electric fields are also produced by time-varying magnetic fields. This principle is already exploited extensively in the production of electrical power by the utility companies.

The line integral of electric field intensity "E" around any closed path "C" equals -dφ/dt where φ represents the magnetic flux over any surface "S" having the closed path "C" as it's contour. The positive side of the surface S and the direction of the line integral around contour C, are related by the right-hand rule (the curled fingers are oriented so as to point around the loop in the direction of integration and the extended thumb points out the positive side of the surface S). The magnetic flux φ is the surface integral of magnetic flux density "B" as shown here:



In Equation (5), the vector differential surface "ds" has an area of ds and in direction, it is perpendicular to the plane of ds, projecting out of the positive side of that surface. The partial time derivative of φ is defined as:



This is referred to as the magnetic current through surface S. For a moving surface S, the limits of the surface integral in equation (6) are functions of time, but the equation still applies. It is important to clarify at this point, that when we evaluate the value of dφ/dt over a surface which is moving in proximity to magnetic field activity, we treat the surface as though it were stationary for the instant under consideration. The partial time derivative of φ, is the time rate of change of flux through surface S, due only to the changing magnetic field density B. Any increase of φ due to the motion of the surface in the B-field, is not included in that calculation.

Continuing this discussion leads us to note that an electric field must be present in any region containing a time-varying magnetic field. This is shown by the following equation:



In this equation, φ is the magnetic flux in webers out of the positive side of any surface having path C as its contour. Combining equations (7) and (4), we are able to calculate the e.m.f. about a closed path C as shown here:



or in another form:



So, the e.m.f. around a closed path consists in general of two components. The component dφ/dt is the variational e.m.f. and the second component is the motional E-field. In equation (9), (V x B)dl can, by means of a vector identity, be replaced with B x (V x dl)A. V is the sideways velocity of d: the vector V x dl has magnitude Vdl and a direction normal to the surface ds swept out by the moving length dl in time dt. Letting Bn denote the component of B normal to this area, we can see that the quantity -B x (V x dl) becomes -BnVdl and equation 9 can be re-written as:



Clearly, the integral of BnV around the closed contour C with sideways velocity of magnitude V for each length dl traversed, is simply the time rate of change of the magnetic flux through the surface bounded by C. This change is directly due to the passage of path C through lines of magnetic flux. Hence, the complete expression for e.m.f. in equation (10) is the time rate of change of the magnetic flux over any surface S, bounded by the closed path C, due to the changing magnetic field and the movement of the path through the magnetic field. Equation (10) may be written:



Note: The distinction between equations (7) and (11) is that equation (7) contains only the variational e.m.f. while equation (11) is the sum of the variational and motional e.m.f. values. In equation (7), the partial time derivative of magnetic flux φ is the rate of flux change due only to the time-varying magnetic field, while equation (11) includes the total time derivative of the rate of flux change due to the time-varying magnetic field and path C's passage through the magnetic field. If the closed path C is not passing through lines of magnetic flux, then equation (7) and equation (11) are equivalent.

It is also important to point out that dφ/dt in equation (11) does not necessarily mean the total time rate of change of the flux φ over the surface S. For example, the flux over surface S is bounded by the closed contour C of the left portion of the electric circuit shown in Fig.1.



The flux is changing as the coil is unwound by the rotation of the cylinder, as illustrated. However, since B is static, there is no variational e.m.f. and since the conductors are not modulating lines of flux, there is no motional e.m.f. Thus, dφ/dt in equation (11) is zero, even though the flux is changing with time. Note that dφ/dt was defined as representing the right hand part of the expression in equation (10) and dφ/dt must not be interpreted more broadly than that.

In the application of the present equations, it is required that all flux densities and movements are referred to a single, specified co-ordinate system. In particular, the velocities will all be with respect to this system alone and not interpreted as relative velocities between conductors or moving lines of flux. The co-ordinate system is selected arbitrarily and the magnitudes of variational and motional fields depend upon the selection.

Example 1:
A fundamental electric generator is shown in Figure 2:



The parallel, stationary conductors, separated by distance "l", have a stationary voltmeter connected across them. The circuit is completed by a moving conductor connected to the parallel conductors by means of two sliding contacts. This conductor is connected at y = 0 at time t = 0, and it moves to the right at a constant velocity V = Vay. The applied flux B is represented by dots on Fig.2 and has a magnitude of B = Bo CosBy Coswt ax. The unit vectors in the direction of the co-ordinate axes are ax, ay and az respectively.

Solution:   Let S denote the plane rectangular surface bounded by the closed electric circuit, with a positive side selected as the side facing you. The counter-clockwise e.m.f. around the circuit is dφ/dt with φ signifying the magnetic flux out of the positive side of S (As ds = 1 dy ax). The scalar product B x ds is Bo l CosBy, Coswt dy; integrating from y = 0 to y = y gives:



With y1 denoting the instantaneous y position of the moving wire. The counter-clockwise e.m.f. is found by replacing y with vt and evaluating dφ/dt. The result is:



The variational (transformer) component is determined with the aid of equation (12) and is wBol/BsinBy sinwt where y = vt. This is the first component on the right hand side of equation (13).
Note: y1 was treated as a constant when evaluating the partial time derivative of φ.

The motional E-field is the line integral of V x B along the path of the moving conductor. As V x B is -Bo vcosBy1 coswt ax and As dl is dz ax, evaluation of the integral -Bo vcosBy1 coswt dz from Z = 0 to Z = 1 results in a motional E-field of -Bo lvcosBv1 coswt. This component results from modulation of the lines of flux by the moving conductor. If the voltmeter draws no current, there can be no electromagnetic force on the free electrons of the wire. Therefore, the e.m.f. along the path of the metal conductors including the moving conductor, is zero.

Example 2:
Suppose the conductor with the sliding taps is stationary (V = 0) and it is located at y = y1. Also, suppose that the magnetic field B is produced by a system of moving conductors which are not shown in Fig.2 and those conductors are travelling with a constant velocity V = Vay. At time t = 0, the magnetic field B is Bo sinBy ax. Determine the voltage across the voltmeter.

Solution:   There is no motional E-field because the conductors in Fig.2 are at rest (stationary) with respect to our selected co-ordinate system. However, the magnetic field at points fixed with respect to the co-ordinate system is changing with time and as a result, there is a variational e.m.f. Since the B-field at time t = 0 is Bo sinBy ax and has a velocity of V = Vay, it can be calculated that the B-field as a function of time is Bosin[B(y-vt)] ax. This is verified by noting that an observer located at time t = 0 who is travelling at the constant velocity (V = Vay) of the moving current, would have a y co-ordinate of y = y + Vt and an accordingly different expression for B. He would observe a constant field where the magnetic current density is:



The counter-clockwise e.m.f. can be arrived at by taking the negative of an integral of the above expression for the rectangular surface bounded by the electric circuit with the positive side facing you, with the limits of zero and y. The resulting e.m.f. equals:

which is the voltage across the meter.

Induced Motional Field - Negative Energy:
Conventional theory says that electric fields and magnetic fields are different things. Consider for a moment, a charge with an electric field around it. If the charge is moved, then a magnetic field develops and the moving charge constitutes a current. If an observer were to move along with the charge, then he would see no relative motion, no current and no magnetic field. A stationary observer would see motion, current and a magnetic field. It would appear that a magnetic field is an electric field observed from a motional reference frame. Similarly, if we take a mass with a gravity field around it, and we move the mass and create a mass current, a new field is also created. It is a different kind of gravity field with no source and no sink. It is called the "Protational field" and is also known as the "Lense-Thirring Effect". This field and it's governing principles will form the basis for future anti-gravitational devices (see figures 1 to 4).



Within the confined are of the Vacuum Triode box, the space-time continuum is reversed by the fields which are produced in the presence of excited coherent space flux quanta. These quanta have been attracted form, and ultimately extracted from the virtual vacuum, the infinitely non-exhaustible Diac Sea. For a more detailed mathematical format see Tom Bearden's paper "The Phase Conjugate Vacuum Triode" (23rd April 1987). Much of the theory which likely applies to the vacuum triode has been developed in the field of phase-conjugate optics.

With regards to over-unity phenomena, it is important to note that so long as positive energy is present in a positively-flowing time regime, then unity and over-unity power gains are not possible. The summation of the losses due to resistance, impedance, friction, magnetic hysteresis, eddy currents and windage losses of rotating machinery will always reduce overall efficiency below unity for a closed system. The laws of conservation of energy always apply to all systems. However, the induced motional E-field changes the system upon which those laws need to be applied. Since the vacuum triode operates in more than four dimensions and provides a link between the multi-dimensional reality of the quantum state and the Dirac Sea, we are now dealing with an open-ended system and not the "closed system" within which all conservation and thermodynamic laws were developed.

To achieve unity, the summation of all magnetic and ohmic losses must equal zero. To achieve this state, negative energy and negative time need to be created. When this is achieved, all ohmic resistance becomes zero and all energy then flows along the outside of conductors in the form of a special space field. Negative energy is fully capable of lighting incandescent lights, running motors and performing all of the functions of positive energy tested to date. When run in parallel with positive energy however, cancellation (annihilation) of opposing power types occurs. This has been fully tested in the laboratory.

Once unity has been achieved and the gate to the Dirac sea opened, over-unity is affected by loading the open gate more and more, which opens it further to the point where direct communication / interaction with the nucleus of the atom itself is achieved. Output of the vacuum triode is not proportional to the excitation input as the output produced by the device is directly proportional to the load which is placed on it. That load is the only dependent variable for device output. The triode's output voltage and frequency always remains constant due to the conditioning of the motional E-field in the permanent magnets and the small regulated excitation signal which is provided through a small oscillator. Regulation remains constant and the triode output looks into an in-phase condition (cosθ=1 Kvar=1) under all load characteristics.

the vacuum triode is a solid-state device consisting of conditioned permanent magnets capable of producing a motional field. This field opens the gate to the Dirac Sea from where negative energy flows into the triode's receiving coils. The coils are wound with very small-diameter wire but in spite of that, they are capable of producing more than 5 kilowatts of useful power. This in itself, is a clear indicator that the type of electrical energy collected by the device is not conventional electrical energy. The wire sizes used in the construction of the device would not be capable of carrying such large currents without excessive heat gain, however, the triode's coils actually run cooler when loaded at 5 kilowatts.

The fundamental magnets have been broken free of the binding forces which constrained them to be steady-state single-pole uniform magnetic flux devices. They are now able to simply support mass, as demonstrated with the transformer steel illustration. They can now easily be made to adopt a dynamic motional field by applying a tiny amount of excitation. Specifically, 1 milliamp at 10 volts (10 milliwatts) of excitation at 60 Hz enables the coils of the triode to receive from the Dirac Sea, more than 5,000 watts of usable negative energy. It has not yet been determined how much more energy can be safely removed. 



Dan Davidson.   Dan has produced a system rather similar to the ‘MEG’.   His system is different in that he uses an acoustic device to vibrate a magnet which forms the core of a transformer.   This is said to increase the output by a substantial amount.   His arrangement looks like this:



Dan’s patent is in the Appendix and it gives details of the types of acoustic transducers which are suitable for this generator design.



Pavel Imris.   Pavel was awarded a US patent in the 1970’s.   The patent is most interesting in that it describes a device which can have an output power which is more than nine times greater than the input power.   He achieves this with a device which has two pointed electrodes enclosed in a quartz glass envelope which contains xenon gas under pressure (the higher the pressure, the greater the gain of the device) and a dielectric material.




Here, the power supply to one or more standard fluorescent lamps is passed through the device.   This produces a power gain which can be spectacular when the gas pressure in the area marked ‘24’ and ‘25’ in the above diagram is high.   The patent is included in this set of documents and it contains the following table of experimental measurements:

Table 1 shows the data to be obtained relating to the optical electrostatic generator.   Table 2 shows the lamp performance and efficiency for each of the tests shown in Table 1.   The following is a description of the data in each of the columns of Tables 1 and 2.





The results from Test No. 24 where the gas pressure is a very high 5,000 Torr, show that the input power for each 40-watt standard fluorescent tubes is 0.9 watts for full lamp output.   In other words, each lamp is working to its full specification on less than one fortieth of its rated input power.   However, the power taken by the device in that test was 333.4 watts which with the 90 watts needed to run the 100 lamps, gives a total input electrical power of 423.4 watts instead of the 4,000 watts which would have been needed without the device.   That is an output power of more than nine times the input power.

From the point of view of any individual lamp, without using this device, it requires 40 watts of electrical input power to give 8.8 watts of light output which is an efficiency of about 22% (the rest of the input power being converted to heat).   In test 24, the input power per lamp is 0.9 watts for the 8.8 watts of light produced, which is a lamp efficiency of more than 900%.   The lamp used to need 40 watts of input power to perform correctly.   With this device in the circuit, each lamp only needs 0.9 watts of input power which is only 2.25% of the original power.   Quite an impressive performance for so simple a device!



Michael Ognyanov’s Self-powered Power Pack.   A patent application US 3,766,094 (shown in detail in an accompanying document) gives the details of an interesting device.   While it is only an application and not a full patent, the information implies strongly that Michael built and tested many of these devices.

While the power output is low, the design is of considerable interest.   It is possible that the device works from picking up the output from many radio stations, although it does not have anything which is intended to be an aerial.   It would be interesting to test the device, first, with a telescopic aerial added to it, and second, placed in an earthed metal box.

The device is constructed by casting a small block of a mixture of semiconductor materials such as Selenium with, from 4.85% to 5.5% Tellurium, from 3.95% to 4.2% Germanium, from 2.85% to 3.2% Neodymium, and from 2.0% to 2.5% Gallium.   The resulting block is shaped with a dome on one face which is contacted by a short, pointed metal probe.   When this arrangement is fed briefly with an oscillating signal, typically in the frequency range of 5.8 to 18 Mhz, it becomes self-powered and can supply electric current to external equipment.   The construction is as shown here:




The circuit used with this component is shown as:




Presumably the output power would be increased by using full-wave rectification of the oscillations rather than the half-wave rectification shown.   Michael says that increasing the dimensions of the unit increases the output power.   The small unit shown in this example of his, has been shown to be able to provide flashing power for an incandescent lamp of up to 250 mA current requirement.   While this is not a large power output, it is interesting that the output is obtained without any apparent input.   Michael speculates that the very short connecting wires may act as radio reception aerials.   If that is the case, then the output is impressive for such tiny aerials.



The Michael Meyer and Yves Mace Isotopic Generator.   There is a French patent application number FR2680613 dated 19th August 1991 entitled “Activateur pour Mutation Isotopique” which provides some very interesting information.   The system described is a self-contained solid-state energy converter which abstracts large amounts of energy from an ordinary iron bar.

The inventors describes the technique as an “isotopic mutation effect” as it converts ordinary iron (isotope 56) to isotope 54 iron, releasing large amounts of electrical energy in the process.   This excess energy can, they say, be used to drive inverters, motors or generators.

The description of the mechanism which is being used by the device is: “the present invention uses a physical phenomenon to which we draw attention and which we will call ‘Isotopic Change’.   The physical principle applies to isotope 56 iron which contains 26 protons, 26 electrons and 30 neutrons, giving a total mass of 56.52 Mev, although its actual mass is 55.80 Mev.   The difference between the total mass and the actual mass is therefore 0.72 Mev this which corresponds to an energy of cohesion per nucleon of 0.012857 Mev.

So, If one introduces an additional 105 ev of energy to the iron core isotope 56, that core isotope will have a cohesion energy level of 0.012962 Mev per nucleon corresponding to iron isotope 54.   The instability created by this contribution of energy will transfer the isotope 56 iron to isotope 54 causing a release of 2 neutrons.

This process generates an excess energy of 20,000 ev since the iron isotope 54 is only 0.70 Mev while isotope 56 has 0.72 Mev.   To bring about this iron isotope 56 conversion, we use the principle of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.”

The practical method for doing this is by using three coils of wire and a magnetic-path-closing support frame of iron as shown in this diagram:




In this arrangement,

Coil 1: Produces 0.5 Tesla when fed with DC, converting the iron bar into an electromagnet
Coil 2: Produces 10 milli-Tesla when fed with a 21 MHz AC sinewave signal
Coil 3: Is the output coil, providing 110, 220 or 380 volts AC at about 400 Hz depending on the number of turns in the coil

This simple and cheap system has the potential for producing substantial energy output for a very long time.   The inventors claim that this device can be wired to be self-powered, while still powering external devices.   Coil 1 turns the iron rod into an electromagnet with it’s flux channelled in a loop by the iron yoke.   Coil 2 then oscillates that magnetic field in resonance with the isotope 56 iron atoms in the rod, and this produces the isotope conversion and release of excess energy.   Coil 3 is wound to produce a convenient output voltage.



The Colman / Seddon-Gilliespie Generator.   This device, patented by Harold Colman and Ronald Seddon-Gillespie on 5th December 1956, is quite remarkable.   It is a tiny lightweight device which can produce electricity using a self-powered electromagnet and chemical salts.   The working life of the device before needing refurbishment is estimated at some seventy years with an output of about one kilowatt.

The operation is controlled by a transmitter which bombards the chemical sample with 300 MHz radio waves.   This produces radioactive emissions from the chemical mixture for a period of one hour maximum, so the transmitter needs to be run for fifteen to thirty seconds once every hour.   The chemical mixture is shielded by a lead screen to prevent harmful radiation reaching the user.   The patent, GB 763,062 is included in the Appendix.

This generator unit includes a magnet, a tube containg a chemical mixture of elements whose nuclei becomes unstable as a result of bombardment by short waves so that the elements become radio-active and release electrical energy, the mixture being mounted between, and in contact with, a pair of different metals such as copper and zinc, and a capacitor mounted between those metals.

The mixture is preferably composed of the elements Cadmium, Phosphorus and Cobalt having Atomic Weights of 112, 31 and 59 respectively.   The mixture, which may be of powdered form, is mounted in a tube of non-conducting, high heat resistivity material and is compressed between granulated zinc at one end of the tube and granulated copper at the other end, the ends of the tube being closed by brass caps and the tube being carried in a suitable cradle so that it is located between the poles of the magnet.   The magnet is preferably an electro-magnet and is energised by the current produced by the unit.   The transmitter unit which is used for activating the generator unit may be of any conventional type operating on ultra-shortwave and is preferably crystal controlled at the desired frequency.







The transmitter unit is of any suitable conventional type for producing ultra shortwaves and may be crystal controlled to ensure that it operates at the desired frequency with the necessity of tuning.   The quartz tube containing the chemical mixture, works best if made up of a number of small cells in series.   In other words, considering the cartridge from one end to the other, at one end and in contact with the brass cap, there would be a layer of powdered copper, then a layer of the chemical mixture, then a layer of powdered zinc, a layer of powdered copper, etc. with a layer of powdered zinc in contact with the brass cap at the other end of the cartridge. With a cartridge some forty five millimetres long and five millimetres diameter, some fourteen cells may be included.







Hans Coler.   Hans Coler developed a device which he named the “Stromerzeuger” which consisted of an arrangement of magnets, flat coils and copper plates with a primary circuit powered by a small battery.   The output from the secondary circuit was used to light a bank of lamps and it was claimed that the output power was many times the input power and to continue indefinitely.

The apparatus principally consists of two parallel connected spools which being bi-filarly wound in a special way, are magnetically linked together.   One of these spools is composed of copper sheets (the spool is called the ‘plate spool’).   The other one is made of a number of thin parallel connected isolated wires (called ‘spool winding’), running parallel to the plates, at small intervals.   Both spools can be fed by separate batteries (6 Volt, 6.5 AHr were used).   At least two batteries are needed to get the apparatus operating, but subsequently, one battery can be removed.

The spools are arranged in two halves each by the bi-filar windings.   The plate spool also contains iron rods with silver wire connections.   These rods are magnetised by a special battery through exciter windings.   Electrically, the exciter winding is completely isolated from the other windings.   Hans said that the production of energy takes place principally in these iron rods and the winding of the spools plays an essential part in the process.

It should be mentioned that the spool circuit is powered up first.   Initially, it took a current of 104 mA.   The plates and exciter circuits are then switched on simultaneously.   When this is done, the current in the spool circuit dropped from 104 mA to about 27 mA.

It is suggested that an electron be not only regarded as a negatively charged particle but also as a South magnetic pole.   The basic Stromerzeuger element is that of an open secondary circuit, capacity loaded, inductively coupled to a primary circuit.   The novel feature is that the capacities are connected to the secondary core through permanent magnets as shown here:



It is claimed that on switching on the primary circuit, “separation of charges” takes place with M1 becoming positively charged and M2 becoming negatively charged and that these charges are “magnetically polarised” when they formed, owing to the presence of the magnets.   When the primary circuit is switched off, a “reversing current” flows in the secondary but the magnets “do not exert a polarising effect on this reversal”.

Two of the basic elements shown above are placed together making a double stage arrangement with the copper plates close together (presumably as capacitor plates):



The secondary windings are both exactly equal and wound in a direction such that, on switching the primary coil on, the electrons in the secondary coil flow from P1 to P2 and from F1 to F2.   This is the basic working arrangement.   More of these double stages can be added to provide higher outputs.




Don Smith.   One of most impressive developers of free-energy devices is Don Smith who has produced many spectacular things, generally with major power output. These are a result of his in-depth knowledge and understanding of the way that the environment works. Don says that his understanding comes from the work of Nikola Tesla as recorded in Thomas C. Martin's book "The Inventions, Researches, and Writings of Nikola Tesla" ISBN 0-7873-0582-0 available from http://www.healthresearchbooks.com and various other book companies. This book can be downloaded fromhttp://www.free-energy-info.com.

Don states that he repeated each of the experiments found in the book and that gave him his understanding of what he prefers to describe as the 'ambient background energy' which is called the 'zero-point energy field' elsewhere in this eBook. Don remarks that he has now advanced further than Tesla in this field, partly because of the devices now available to him and which were not available when Tesla was alive.

Don stresses two key points. Firstly, a dipole can cause a disturbance in the magnetic component of the 'ambient background' and that imbalance allows you to collect large amounts of electrical power, using capacitors and inductors (coils). Secondly, you can pick up as many powerful electrical outputs as you want from that one magnetic disturbance, without depleting the magnetic disturbance in any way. This allows massively more power output than the small power needed to create the magnetic disturbance in the first place. This is what produces a COP>1 device and Don has created nearly fifty different devices based on that understanding.

Although they get removed quite frequently, there is one video which was recorded 2006 and it covers a good deal of what Don has done. In the video, reference is made to Don's website but you will find that it has been taken over by Big Oil who have filled it with innocuous similar-sounding things of no consequence, apparently intended to confuse newcomers. A website which is run by Conny Öström of Sweden is here and it has brief details of his prototypes and theory. You will find the only document of his which I could locate, presented as a downloadable pdf document here and it contains the following patent on a most interesting device which appears to have no particular limit on the output power. This is a slightly re-worded copy of that patent as patents are generally worded in a way which makes them difficult to understand.

Patent NL 02000035 A              20th May 2004              Inventor: Donald Lee Smith

TRANSFORMER GENERATOR MAGNETIC RESONANCE INTO ELECTRIC ENERGY

ABSTRACT
The present invention refers to an Electromagnetic Dipole Device and Method, where wasted radiated energy is transformed into useful energy. A Dipole as seen in Antenna Systems is adapted for use with capacitor plates in such a way that the Heaviside Current Component becomes a useful source of electrical energy.


DESCRIPTION

Technical Field:

This invention relates to loaded Dipole Antenna Systems and their Electromagnetic radiation. When used as a transformer with an appropriate energy collector system, it becomes a transformer/generator. The invention collects and converts energy which is radiated and wasted by conventional devices.

Background Art:
A search of the International Patent Database for closely related methods did not reveal any prior art with an interest in conserving radiated and wasted magnetic waves as useful energy.


DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION
The invention is a new and useful departure from transformer generator construction, such that radiated and wasted magnetic energy changes into useful electrical energy. Gauss meters show that much energy from conventional electromagnetic devices is radiated into the ambient background and wasted. In the case of conventional transformer generators, a radical change in the physical construction allows better access to the energy available. It is found that creating a dipole and inserting capacitor plates at right angles to the current flow, allows magnetic waves to change back into useful electrical (coulombs) energy. Magnetic waves passing through the capacitor plates do not degrade and the full impact of the available energy is accessed. One, or as many sets of capacitor plates as is desired, may be used. Each set makes an exact copy of the full force and effect of the energy present in the magnetic waves. The originating source is not depleted of degraded as is common in conventional transformers.


BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The Dipole at right angles, allows the magnetic flux surrounding it to intercept the capacitor plate, or plates, at right angles. The electrons present are spun such that the electrical component of each electron is collected by the capacitor plates. Essential parts are the South and North component of an active Dipole. Examples presented here exist as fully functional prototypes and were engineer constructed and fully tested in use by the Inventor. In each of the three examples shown in the drawings, corresponding parts are used.



Fig.1 is a View of the Method, where N is the North and S is the South component of the Dipole.

Here, 1 marks the Dipole with its North and South components. 2 is a resonant high-voltage induction coil. 3 indicates the position of the electromagnetic wave emission from the Dipole. 4 indicates the position and flow direction of the corresponding Heaviside current component of the energy flow caused by the induction coil 25 is the dielectric separator for the capacitor plates 76 for the purposes of this drawing, indicates a virtual limit for the scope of the electromagnetic wave energy.



Fig.2 has two parts A and B.

In Fig.2A   1 is the hole in the capacitor plates through which the Dipole is inserted and in Fig.2B it is the Dipole with its North and South poles shown. 2 is the resonant high-voltage induction coil surrounding part of the Dipole 1. The dielectric separator 5, is a thin sheet of plastic placed between the two capacitor plates 7, the upper plate being made of aluminium and the lower plate made of copper. Unit 8 is a deep-cycle battery system powering a DC inverter 9 which produces 120 volts at 60 Hz (the US mains supply voltage and frequency, obviously, a 240 volt 50 Hz inverter could be used here just as easily) which is used to power whatever equipment is to be driven by the device. The reference number 10just indicates connecting wires. Unit 11 is a high-voltage generating device such as a neon transformer with its oscillating power supply.



Fig.3 is a Proof Of Principal Device using a Plasma Tube as an active Dipole. In this drawing, 5 is the plastic sheet dielectric separator of the two plates 7 of the capacitor, the upper plate being aluminium and the lower plate copper. The connecting wires are marked 10 and the plasma tube is designated 15. The plasma tube is four feet long (1.22 m) and six inches (100 mm) in diameter. The high-voltage energy source for the active plasma dipole is marked 16 and there is a connector box 17 shown as that is a convenient method of connecting to the capacitor plates when running tests on the device.



Fig.4 shows a Manufacturer's Prototype, constructed and fully tested. 1 is a metal Dipole rod and 2 the resonant high-voltage induction coil, connected through wires 10 to connector block 17 which facilitates the connection of it's high-voltage power supply. Clamps 18 hold the upper edge of the capacitor packet in place and 19 is the base plate with it's supporting brackets which hold the whole device in place. 20 is a housing which contains the capacitor plates and 21 is the point at which the power output from the capacitor plates is drawn off and fed to the DC inverter.

BEST METHOD OF CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
The invention is applicable to any and all electrical energy requirements. The small size and it's high efficiency make it an attractive option, especially for remote areas, homes, office buildings, factories, shopping centres, public places, transportation, water systems, electric trains, boats, ships and 'all things great and small'. The construction materials are commonly available and only moderate skill levels are needed to make the device.

CLAIMS
  1. Radiated magnetic flux from the Dipole, when intercepted by capacitor plates at right angles, changes into useful electrical energy.
  2. A Device and Method for converting for use, normally wasted electromagnetic energy.
  3. The Dipole of the Invention is any resonating substance such as Metal Rods, Coils and Plasma Tubes which have interacting Positive and Negative components.
  4. The resulting Heaviside current component is changed to useful electrical energy.
**********************


This patent does not make it clear that the device needs to be tuned and that the tuning is related to its physical location. The tuning will be accomplished by applying a variable-frequency input signal to the neon transformer and adjusting that input frequency to give the maximum output.

Don Smith has produced some forty eight different devices, and because he understands that the real power in the universe is magnetic and not electric, these devices have performances which appear staggering to people trained to think that electrical power is the only source of power. One device which is commercially produced in Russia, is shown here:



This is a small table-top device which looks like it is an experiment by a beginner, and something which would be wholly ineffective. Nothing could be further from the truth. Each of the eight coils pairs (one each side of the rotating disc) produces 1,000 volts at 50 amps (fifty kilowatts) of output power, giving a total power output of 400 kilowatts. It's overall size is 16" x 14.5" x 10" (400 x 370 x 255 mm). In spite of the extremely high power output, the general construction is very simple:



The device operates on a fluctuating magnetic field which is produced by a small low-power DC motor spinning a plastic disc. In the prototype shown above, the disc is an old vinyl record which has had holes cut in it. Between the holes is an area which was covered with glue and then sprinkled with powdered neodymium magnet material. It takes very little power to spin the disc, but it acts in a way which is very much like the Ecklin-Brown generator, repeatedly disrupting the magnetic field. The magnetic field is created by a neodymium magnet in each of the sixteen plastic pipes. It is important that the change in the magnetic flux between the matching magnets on each side of the disc is as large as possible. The ideal rotor material for this is "Terfenol-D" (tungsten zirconate) with slots cut in it but it is so expensive that materials like stainless steel are likely to be used instead

For Don Smith, this is not an exceptional device. The one shown below is also physically quite small and yet it has an output of 160 kilowatts (8000 volts at 20 amps) from an input of 12 volts 1 amp (COP = 13,333):



Again, this is a device which can be placed on top of a table and is not a complicated form of construction, having a very open and simplistic layout. However, some components are not mounted on this board. The twelve volt battery and connecting leads are not shown, nor is the ground connection, the step-down isolation transformer and the varistor used to protect the load from over-voltage by absorbing any random voltage spikes which might occur, but more of these things later on when a much more detailed description of this device is given.

Another of Don's devices is shown here:



This is a larger device which uses a plasma tube four feet (1.22 m) long and 6 inches (100 mm) in diameter. The output is a massive 100 kilowatts. This is the design shown as one of the options in Don's patent. Being an Electrical Engineer, none of Don's prototypes are in the "toy" category. If nothing else is taken from Don's work, we should realise that high power outputs can be had from very simple devices.


There is one other brief document "Resonate Electrical Power System" from Don Smith which says:

Potential Energy us everywhere at all times, becoming useful when converted into a more practical form. There is no energy shortage, only grey matter. This energy potential is observed indirectly through the manifestation of electromagnetic phenomenon, when intercepted and converted, becomes useful. In nonlinear systems, interaction of magnetic waves amplify (conjugate) energy, providing greater output than input. In simple form, in the piano where three strings are struck by the hammer, the centre one is impacted and resonance activates the side strings. Resonance between the three strings provides a sound level greater than the input energy. Sound is part of the electromagnetic spectrum and is subject to all that is applicable to it.

"Useful Energy" is defined as "that which is other than Ambient". "Electric Potential" relates to mass and it's acceleration. Therefore, the Earth's Mass and Speed through space, gives it an enormous electrical potential. Humans are like the bird sitting unaware on a high voltage line. in nature, turbulence upsets ambient and we see electrical displays. Tampering with ambient, allows humans to convert magnetic waves into useful electricity.

Putting this in focus, requires a look at the Earth in general. Each minute of each day (1,440 minutes), more than 4,000 displays of lightning occur. Each display yields more than 10,000,000 volts at more than 200,000 amperes in equivalent electromagnetic flux. This is more than 57,600,000,000,000 volts and 1,152,000,000,000 amperes of electromagnetic flux during each 24 hour period. This has been going on for more than 4 billion years. The USPTO insist that the Earth's electrical field is insignificant and useless, and that converting this energy violates the laws of nature. At the same time, they issue patents in which, electromagnetic flux coming in from the Sun is converted by solar cells into DC energy. Aeromagnetic flux (in gammas) Maps World-Wide, includes those provided by the US Department of Interior-Geological Survey, and these show clearly that there is present, a spread of 1,900 gamma above Ambient, from reading instruments flown 1,000 feet above the (surface) source. Coulomb's Law requires the squaring of the distance of the remote reading, multiplied by the recorded reading. Therefore, that reading of 1,900 gamma has a corrected value of 1,900 x 1,000 x 1,000 = 1,900,000,000 gamma.

There is a tendency to confuse "gamma ray" with "gamma". "Gamma" is ordinary, everyday magnetic flux, while "gamma ray" is high-impact energy and not flux. One gamma of magnetic flux is equal to that of 100 volts RMS. To see this, take a Plasma Globe emitting 40,000 volts. When properly used, a gamma meter placed nearby, will read 400 gammas. The 1,900,000,000 gamma just mentioned, is the magnetic ambient equivalent of 190,000,000 volts of electricity. This is on a "Solar Quiet" day. On "Solar Active" days it may exceed five times that amount. The Establishment's idea that the Earth's electrical field is insignificant, goes the way of their other great ideas.

There are two kinds of electricity: "potential" and "useful". All electricity is "potential" until it is converted. The resonant-fluxing of electrons, activates the electrical potential which is present everywhere. The Intensity/CPS of the resonant-frequency-flux rate, sets the available energy. This must then be converted into the required physical dimensions of the equipment being used. For example, energy arriving from the Sun is magnetic flux, which solar cells convert to DC electricity, which is then converted further to suit the equipment being powered by it. Only the magnetic flux moves from point "A" (the Sun) to point "B" (the Earth). All electrical power systems work in exactly the same way. Movement of Coils and Magnets at point "A" (the generator) fluxes electrons, which in turn, excite electrons at point "B" (your house). None of the electrons at point "A" are ever transmitted to point "B". In both cases, the electrons remain forever intact and available for further fluxing. This is not allowed by Newtonian Physics (electrodynamics and the laws of conservation). Clearly, these laws are all screwed up and inadequate.

In modern physics, USPTO style, all of the above cannot exist because it opens a door to overunity. The good news is that the PTO has already issued hundreds of Patents related to Light Amplification, all of which are overunity. The Dynode used to adjust the self-powered shutter in your camera, receives magnetic flux from light which dislodges electrons from the cathode, reflecting electrons through the dynode bridge to the anode, resulting in billions of more electrons out than in. There are currently, 297 direct patents issued for this system, and thousands of peripheral patents, all of which support overunity. More than a thousand other Patents which have been issued, can be seen by the discerning eye to be overunity devices. What does this indicate about Intellectual Honesty?

Any coil system, when fluxed, causes electrons to spin and produce useful energy, once it is converted to the style required by its use. Now that we have described the method which is required, let us now see how this concerns us.

The entire System already exists and all that we need to do is to hook it up in a way which is useful to our required manner of use. Let us examine this backwards and start with a conventional output transformer. Consider one which has the required voltage and current handling characteristics and which acts as an isolation transformer. Only the magnetic flux passes from the input winding to the output winding. No electrons pass through from the input side to the output side. Therefore, we only need to flux the output side of the transformer to have an electrical output. Bad design by the establishment, allowing hysteresis of the metal plates, limits the load which can be driven. Up to this point, only potential is a consideration. Heat (which is energy loss) limits the output amperage. Correctly designed composite cores run cool, not hot.

A power correction factor system, being a capacitor bank, maintains an even flow of flux. These same capacitors, when used with a coil system (a transformer) become a frequency-timing system. Therefore, the inductance of the input side of the transformer, when combined with the capacitor bank, provides the required fluxing to produce the required electrical energy (cycles per second).

With the downstream system in place, all that is needed now is a potential system. Any flux system will be suitable. Any amplification over-unity output type is desirable. The input system is point "A" and the output system is point "B". Any input system where a lesser amount of electrons disturbs a greater amount of electrons - producing an output which is greater than the input - is desirable.

At this point, it is necessary to present updated information about electrons and the laws of physics. A large part of this, originates from me and so is likely to upset people who are rigidly set in the thought patterns of conventional science.

Non - Ionic Electrons

As a source of electrical energy, non-ionic electrons doublets exist in immense quantities throughout the universe. Their origin is from the emanation of Solar Plasma. When ambient electrons are disturbed by being spun or pushed apart, they yield both magnetic and electrical energy. The rate of disturbance (cycling) determines the energy level achieved. Practical methods of disturbing them include, moving coils past magnets or vice versa. A better way is the pulsing (resonant induction) with magnetic fields and waves near coils.

In coil systems, magnetic and amperage are one package. This suggests that electrons in their natural non-ionic state, exist as doublets. When pushed apart by agitation, one spins right (yielding Volts-potential electricity) and the other spins left (yielding Amperage-magnetic energy), one being more negative than the other. This further suggests that when they reunite, we have (Volts x Amps = Watts) useful electrical energy. Until now, this idea has been totally absent from the knowledge base. The previous definition of Amperage is therefore flawed.


Electron Related Energy




Left hand spin of electrons results in Electrical Energy and right hand spin results in Magnetic Energy. Impacted electrons emit visible Light and heat.


Useful Circuits, Suggestions for Building an Operational Unit



  1. Substitute a Plasma Globe such as Radio Shack's "Illumna-Storm" for the source-resonant induction system. It will have about 400 milligauss of magnetic induction. One milligauss is equal to 100 volts worth of magnetic induction.
  2. Construct a coil using a 5-inch to 7-inch (125 to 180 mm) diameter piece of PVC for the coil former.
  3. Get about 30 feet (10 m) of Jumbo-Speaker Cable and separate the two strands. This can be done by sticking a carpet knife into a piece of cardboard or wood, and then pulling the cable carefully past the blade to separate the two insulated cores from each other. (PJK Note: "Jumbo-Speaker Cable" is a vague term as that cable comes in many varieties, with anything from a few, to over 500 strands in each core. As Don points out that the output power increases with each turn of wire, it is distinctly possible that each of these strands acts the same as individual insulated turns which have been connected in parallel, so a 500-strand cable may well be far more effective than a cable with just a few strands).
  4. Wind the coil with 10 to 15 turns of wire and leave about 3 feet (1 m) of cable spare at each end of the coil. Use a glue gun to hold the start and finish of the coil.
  5. This will become the "L - 2" coil shown in the Circuits page.
  6. When sitting on top of the Plasma Globe (like a crown) you have a first-class resonant air-core coil system.
  7. Now, substitute two or more capacitors (rated at 5,000 volts or more) for the capacitor bank shown on the Circuits page. I use more than two 34 microfarad capacitors.
  8. Finish out the circuit as shown. You are now in business !
  9. Voltage - Amperage limiting resistors are required across the output side of the Load transformer. These are used to adjust the output level and the desired cycles per second.








Suggestions:   Get a copy of the "Handbook of Electronic Tables and Formulas", published by Sams, ISBN 0-672-22469-0, also an LCR meter is required. Chapter 1 in this book has important time constant (frequency) information and a set of reactance charts in nomograph style ("nomograph": a graph, usually containing three parallel scales graduated for different variables so that when a straight line connects values of any two, the related value may be read directly from the third at the point intersected by the line) which makes working, and approximating of the three variables (capacitance, inductance and resistance) much easier. If two of the variables are known, then the third one can be read from the nomograph.

For example, if the input side of the isolation transformer needs to operate at 60 Hz, that is 60 positive cycles and 60 negative cycles, being a total of 120 cycles. Read off the inductance in Henries using the LCR meter attached to the input side of the isolation transformer. Plot this value on the (nomographic) reactance chart. Plot the needed 120 Hz on the chart and connect these two points with a straight line. Where this line crosses the Farads line and the Ohms line, gives us two values. Choose one (resistor) and insert it between the two leads of the transformer input winding.

The Power Correction Factor Capacitor (or bank of more than one capacitor) now need adjusting. The following formula is helpful in finding this missing information. The capacitance is known, as is the desired potential to pulse the output transformer. One Farad of capacitance is one volt for one second (one Coulomb). Therefore, if we want to keep the bucket full with a certain amount, how many dippers full are needed? If the bucket needs 120 volts, then how many coulombs are required?


Now, go to the Reactance Chart mentioned above, and find the required resistor jumper to place between the poles of the Correction Factor Capacitor.

A earth grounding is desirable as a voltage-limiter and transient spike control. Two are necessary, one at the Power Factor Capacitor and one at the input side of the isolation transformer. Off-the-shelf surge arrestors / spark gaps and varistors having the desired voltage/potential and amperage control are commonly available. Siemans, Citel America and others, make a full range of surge arrestors, etc. Varistors look like coin-sized flat capacitors. Any of these voltage limiters are marked as "V - 1" in the following text.

It should be obvious that several separate closed circuits are present in the suggested configuration: The power input source, the high-voltage module, a power factor capacitor bank combined with the input side of the isolation transformer. Lastly, the output side of the isolation transformer and its load. None of the electrons active at the power source (battery) are passed through the system for use downstream. At any point, if the magnetic flux rate should happen to vary, then the number of active electrons also varies. Therefore, controlling the flux rate controls the electron (potential) activity. Electrons active at point "A" are not the same electrons active at point "B", or point "C", and so on. If the magnetic flux rate (frequency Hz) varies, then a different number of electrons will be disturbed. This does not violate any Natural Law and does produce more energy out than in should that be desirable.

A convenient high-voltage module is a 12 volt DC neon tube transformer. The Power Factor Correction Capacitors should be as many microfarads as possible as this allows a lower operating frequency. The 12-volt neon tube transformer oscillates at about 30,000 Hz. At the Power Correction Factor Capacitor bank we lower the frequency to match the input side of the isolation transformer.

Other convenient high-voltage sources are car ignition coils, television flyback transformers, laser printer modules, and various other devices. Always lower the frequency at the Power Factor Correction Capacitor and correct, if needed, at the input side of the isolation transformer. The isolation transformer comes alive when pulsed. Amperage becomes a part of the consideration only at the isolation transformer. Faulty design, resulting in hysteresis, creates heat which self-destructs the transformer if it is overloaded. Transformers which have a composite core instead of the more common cores made from many layers of thin sheets of soft iron, run cool and can tolerate much higher amperage.




The information shown above, relates to the small Suitcase Model demonstrated at the 1996 Tesla Convention, presented as Don Smiths' Workshop. This unit was a very primitive version and newer versions have atomic batteries and power output ranges of Gigawatts. The battery requirement is low level and is no more harmful than the radium on the dial of a clock. Commercial units of Boulder Dam size are currently being installed at several major locations throughout the world. For reasons of Don's personal security and contract obligations, the information which he has shared here is incomplete.

 


I am most definitely not an expert in this area. However, it is probably worth mentioning some of the main points which Don Smith appears to be making. There are some very important points being made here, and grasping these may make a considerable difference to our ability to tap into the excess energy available in our local environment. There are four points worth mentioning:
  1. Voltage
  2. Frequency
  3. Magnetic / Electric relationship
  4. Resonance

1. Voltage.   We tend to view things with an 'intuitive' view, generally based on fairly simple concepts. For example, we automatically think that it is more difficult to pick up a heavy object than to pick up a light one. How much more difficult? Well, if it is twice as heavy, it would probably be about twice as much effort to pick it up. This view has developed from our experience of things which we have done in the past, rather than on any mathematical calculation or formula.

Well, how about pulsing an electronic system with a voltage? How would the output power of a system be affected by increasing the voltage? Our initial 'off-the cuff' reaction might be that the power output might be increased a bit, but then hold on… we've just remembered that Watts = Volts x Amps, so if you double the voltage, then you would double the power in watts. So we might settle for the notion that if we doubled the voltage then we could double the output power. If we thought that, then we would be wrong.

Don Smith points out that as capacitors and coils store energy, if they are involved in the circuit, then the output power is proportional to the square of the voltage used. Double the voltage, and the output power is four times greater. Use three times the voltage and the output power is nine times greater. Use ten times the voltage and the output power is one hundred times greater !



Don says that the energy stored, multiplied by the cycles per second, is the energy being pumped by the system. Capacitors and inductors (coils) temporarily store electrons, and their performance is given by:


Capacitor formula:  W = 0.5 x C x V2 x Hz  where:



	W is the energy in Joules (Joules = Volts x Amps x seconds)

	C is the capacitance in Farads

	V is the voltage

	Hz is the cycles per second



Inductor formula:  W = 0.5 x L x A2 x Hz  where:



	W is the energy in Joules

	L is the inductance in Henrys

	A is the current in amps

	Hz is the frequency in cycles per second

You will notice that where inductors (coils) are involved, then the output power goes up with the square of the current. Double the voltage and double the current gives four times the power output due to the increased voltage and that increased output is increased by a further four times due to the increased current, giving sixteen times the output power.

2. Frequency.   You will notice from the formulas above, that the output power is directly proportional to the frequency "Hz". The frequency is the number of cycles per second (or pulses per second) applied to the circuit. This is something which is not intuitive for most people. If you double the rate of pulsing, then you double the power output. When this sinks in, you suddenly see why Nikola Tesla tended to use millions of volts and millions of pulses per second.

However, Don Smith states that when a circuit is at it's point of resonance, resistance in the circuit drops to zero and the circuit becomes effectively, a superconductor. The energy for such a system which is in resonance is:


Resonant circuit:  W = 0.5 x C x V2 x (Hz)2  where:



	W is the energy in Joules

	C is the capacitance in Farads

	V is the voltage

	Hz is the cycles per second

If this is correct, then raising the frequency in a resonating circuit has a massive effect on the power output of the device. The question then arises: why is the mains power in Europe just fifty cycles per second and in America just sixty cycles per second? If power goes up with frequency, then why not feed households at a million cycles per second? One major reason is that it is not easy to make electric motors which can be driven with power delivered at that frequency, so a more suitable frequency is chosen in order to suit the motors in vacuum cleaners, washing machines and other household equipment.

However, if we want to extract energy from the environment, then we should go for high voltage and high frequency. Then, when high power has been extracted, if we want a low frequency suited to electric motors, we can pulse the already captured power at that low frequency.

It might be speculated that if a device is being driven with sharp pulses which have a very sharply rising leading edge, that the effective frequency of the pulsing is actually determined by the speed of that rising edge, rather than the rate at which the pulses are actually generated. For example, if pulses are being generated at, say, 50 kHz but the pulses have a leading edge which would be suited to a 200 kHz pulse train, then the device might well see the signal as a 200 kHz signal with a 25% Mark/Space ratio, the very suddenness of the applied voltage having a magnetic shocking effect equivalent to a 200 kHz pulse train.

3. Magnetic / Electric relationship.   Don states that the reason why our present power systems are so inefficient is because we concentrate on the electric component of electromagnetism. These systems are always COP<1 as electricity is the 'losses' of electromagnetic power. Instead, if you concentrate on the magnetic component, then there is no limit on the electric power which can be extracted from that magnetic component. Contrary to what you might expect, if you install a pick-up system which extracts electrical energy from the magnetic component, you can install any number of other identical pick-ups, each of which extract the same amount of electrical energy from the magnetic input, without loading the magnetic wave in any way. Unlimited electrical output for the 'cost' of creating a single magnetic effect.

The magnetic effect which we want to create is a ripple in the zero-point energy field, and ideally, we want to create that effect while using very little power. Creating a dipole with a battery which has a Plus and a Minus terminal or a magnet which has North and South poles, is an easy way to do create an electromagnetic imbalance in the local environment. Pulsing a coil is probably an even better way as the magnetic field reverses rapidly if it is an air-core coil, such as a Tesla Coil. Using a ferromagnetic core to the coil can create a problem as iron can't reverse it's magnetic alignment very rapidly, and ideally, you want pulsing which is at least a thousand times faster than iron can handle.

Don draws attention to the "Transmitter / Receiver" educational kit "Resonant Circuits #10-416" supplied by The Science Source, Maine. This kit demonstrates the generation of resonant energy and it's collection with a receiver circuit. However, if several receiver circuits are used, then the energy collected is increased several times without any increase in the transmitted energy. This is similar to a radio transmitter where hundreds of thousands of radio receivers can receive the transmitted signal without loading the transmitter in any way.


If you get the Science Source educational kit, then there are some details which you need to watch out for. The unit supplied to me had two very nice quality plastic bases and two very neatly wound coils each of 60 turns of 0.47 mm diameter enamelled copper wire on clear acrylic tubes 57 mm (2.25”) in diameter. The winding covers a 28 mm section of the tube. The layout of the transmitter and receiver modules does not match the accompanying instruction sheet and so considerable care needs to be taken when wiring up any of their circuits.

The circuit diagrams are not shown, just a wiring diagram, which is not great from an educational point of view. The one relevant circuit is:


Before you buy the kit, it is not mentioned that in order to use it, you need a signal generator capable of producing a 10-volt signal at 1 MHz. The coil has a DC resistance of just 1.9 ohms but at a 1 MHz resonant frequency, the necessary drive power is quite low.

A variable capacitor is mounted on the receiver coil tube, but the one in my kit made absolutely no difference to the frequency tuning, nor was my capacitance meter able to determine any capacitance value for it at all, even though it had no trouble at all in measuring the 101 pF capacitor which was exactly the capacitance printed on it. For that reason, it is shown in blue in the circuit diagram above. Disconnecting it made no difference whatsoever.

In this particular kit, standard screw connectors have had one screw replaced with an Allen key headed bolt which has a head large enough to allow finger tightening. Unfortunately, those bolts have a square cut head where a domed head is essential if small diameter wires are to be clamped securely. If you get the kit, then I suggest that you replace the connectors with a standard electrical screw connector strip.

In tests, the LED lights when the coils are aligned and within about 100 mm of each other, or if they are close together side by side. This immediately makes the Hubbard device spring to mind. Hubbard has a central "electromagnetic transmitter" surrounded by a ring of "receivers" closely coupled magnetically to the transmitter, each of which will receive a copy of the energy sent by the transmitter:



Don points to an even more clearly demonstrated occurrence of this effect in the Tesla Coil. In a typical Tesla Coil, the primary coil is much larger diameter than the inner secondary coil:



If, for example, 8,000 volts is applied to the primary coil which has four turns, then each turn would have 2,000 volts of potential. Each turn of the primary coil transfers electromagnetic flux to every single turn of the secondary winding, and the secondary coil has a very large number of turns. Massively more power is produced in the secondary coil than was used to energise the primary coil. A common mistake is to believe that a Tesla Coil can't produce serious amperage. If the primary coil is positioned in the middle of the secondary coil as shown, then the amperage generated will be as large as the voltage generated. A low power input to the primary coil can produce kilowatts of usable electrical power as described in chapter 5.

4. Resonance.   An important factor in circuits aimed at tapping external energy is resonance. It can be hard to see where this comes in when it is an electronic circuit which is being considered. However, everything has it's own resonant frequency, whether it is a coil or any other electronic component. When components are connected together to form a circuit, the circuit has an overall resonant frequency. As a simple example, consider a swing:



If the swing is pushed before it reaches the highest point on the mother's side, then the push actually detracts from the swinging action. The time of one full swing is the resonant frequency of the swing, and that is determined by the length of the supporting ropes holding the seat and not the weight of the child nor the power with which the child is pushed. Provided that the timing is exactly right, a very small push can get a swing moving in a substantial arc. The key factor is, matching the pulses applied to the swing, to the resonant frequency of the swing. Get it right and a large movement is produced. Get it wrong, and the swing doesn't get going at all (at which point, critics would say "see, see …swings just don't work - this proves it !!").

Establishing the exact pulsing rate needed for a resonant circuit is not particularly easy, because the circuit contains coils (which have inductance, capacitance and resistance), capacitors (which have capacitance and a small amount of resistance) and resistors and wires, both of which have resistance and some capacitance. These kinds of circuit are called "LRC" circuits because "L" is the symbol used for inductance, "R" is the symbol used for resistance and "C" is the symbol used for capacitance.


Don Smith provides instructions for winding and using the type of air-core coils needed for a Tesla Coil. He says:
  1. Decide a frequency and bear in mind, the economy of the size of construction selected. The factors are:

    (a) Use radio frequency (above 20 kHz).
    (b) Use natural frequency, i.e. match the coil wire length to the frequency - coils have both capacitance and inductance.
    (c) Make the wire length either one quarter, one half or the full wavelength.
    (d) Calculate the wire length in feet as follows:

    If using one quarter wavelength, then divide 247 by the frequency in MHz.
    If using one half wavelength, then divide 494 by the frequency in MHz.
    If using the full wavelength, then divide 998 by the frequency in MHz.

    For wire lengths in metres:
    If using one quarter wavelength, then divide 75.29 by the frequency in MHz.
    If using one half wavelength, then divide 150.57 by the frequency in MHz.
    If using the full wavelength, then divide 304.19 by the frequency in MHz.
  2. Choose the number of turns to be used in the coil when winding it using the wire length just calculated. The number of turns will be governed by the diameter of the tube on which the coil is to be wound. Remember that the ratio of the number of turns in the "L - 1" and "L - 2" coils, controls the overall output voltage. For example, if the voltage applied the large outer coil "L - 1" is 2,400 volts and L - 1 has ten turns, then each turn of L - 1 will have 240 volts dropped across it. This 240 volts of magnetic induction transfers 240 volts of electricity to every turn of wire in the inner "L - 2" coil. If the diameter of L - 2 is small enough to have 100 turns, then the voltage produced will be 24,000 volts. If the diameter of the L - 2 former allows 500 turns, then the output voltage will be 120,000 volts.
  3. Choose the length and diameter of the coils. The larger the diameter of the coil, the fewer turns can be made with the wire length and so the coil length will be less, and the output voltage will be lower.
  4. For example, if 24.7 MHz is the desired output frequency, then the length of wire, in feet, would be 247 divided by 24.7 which is 10 feet of wire (3,048 mm). The coil may be wound on a standard size of PVC pipe or alternatively, purchased from a supplier - typically, an amateur radio supply store.

    If the voltage on each turn of L - 1 is arranged to be 24 volts and the desired output voltage 640 volts, then there needs to be 640 / 24 = 26.66 turns on L - 2, wound with the 10 feet of wire already calculated.

    Note: At this point, Don's calculations go adrift and he suggests winding 30 turns on a 2-inch former. If you do that, then it will take about 16 feet of wire and the resonant point at 10-feet will be at about 19 turns, giving an output voltage of 458 volts instead of the required 640 volts, unless the number of turns on L - 1 is reduced to give more than 24 volts per turn. However, the actual required diameter of the coil former (plus one diameter of the wire) is 10 x 12 / (26.67 x 3.14159) = 1.43 inches. You can make this size of former up quite easily if you want to stay with ten turns on the L - 1 coil.
  5. Connect to the start of the coil. To determine the exact resonant point on the coil, a measurement is made. Off-the-shelf multimeters are not responsive to high-frequency signals so a cheap neon is used instead. Holding one wire of the neon in one hand and running the other neon wire along the outside of the L - 2 winding, the point of brightest light is located. Then the neon is moved along that turn to find the brightest point along that turn, and when it is located, a connection is made to the winding at that exact point. L - 2 is now a resonant winding. It is possible to increase the ("Q") effectiveness of the coil by spreading the turns out a bit instead of positioning them so that each turn touches both of the adjacent turns.
  6. The input power has been suggested as 2,400 volts. This can be constructed from a Jacob's ladder arrangement or any step-up voltage system. An off-the-shelf module as used with lasers is another option.
  7. Construction of the L - 1 input coil has been suggested as having 10 turns. The length of the wire in this coil is not critical. If a 2-inch diameter PVC pipe was used for the L - 2 coil, then the next larger size of PVC pipe can be used for the L - 1 coil former. Cut a 10-turn length of the pipe (probably a 3-inch diameter pipe). The pipe length will depend on the diameter of the insulated wire used to make the winding. Use a good quality multimeter or a specialised LCR meter to measure the capacitance (in Farads) and the inductance (in henrys) of the L - 2 coil. Now, put a capacitor for matching L - 1 to L - 2 across the voltage input of L - 1, and a spark gap connected in parallel is required for the return voltage from L - 1. A trimmer capacitor for L - 1 is desirable.
  8. The performance of L - 2 can be further enhanced by attaching an earth connection to the base of the coil. The maximum output voltage will be between the ends of coil L - 2 and lesser voltages can be taken off intermediate points along the coil if that is desirable.

Don provides quite an amount of information on one of his devices shown here:



I have recently been passed a copy of Don’s circuit diagram for this device, and it is shown here:


This circuit diagram contradicts what Don says in his video presentations as the output matches the photographs which show the four output capacitors wired in parallel. It appears that while using the prototype shown above as an example of the construction, in the videos Don is actually describing a later version of the circuit. The 4000V 30mA transformer shown in this circuit diagram, is a neon-tube driver module which steps up the voltage and raises the frequency to about 35 kilohertz.

There is always a tendency to think of a spark gap as being a device which is there to protect against excessive voltages rather than seeing it as an active component of the circuit, a component which is in continuous use as it is in this circuit. Tesla, who always speaks very highly of the energy released by the very sharp discharge produced by a spark, shows a high-voltage source feeding a capacitor with the energy passing through a spark gap to the primary winding of a transformer:

With Don's arrangement, it can be a little difficult to see why the capacitor is not short-circuited by the very low resistance of the few turns of thick wire forming the L1 coil. Well, it would do that if we were operating with DC, but we are most definitely not doing that as the output from the neon-tube driver circuit is pulsing 35,000 times per second. This causes the DC resistance of the L1 coil to be of almost no consequence and instead, the coil's AC "impedance" (effectively, it's AC resistance) is what counts. Actually, the “C1” capacitor and the L1 coil being connected across each other have a combined "impedance" or resistance to pulsing current at this frequency. This is where the nomograph diagram comes into play, and there is a much easier to understand version of it a few pages later on in this document. So, because of the high pulsing frequency, the L1 coil does not short-circuit the capacitor and if the pulsing frequency matches the resonant frequency of the L1 coil (or a harmonic of that frequency), then the L1 coil will actually have a very high resistance to current flow through it. This is how a crystal set radio receiver tunes in a particular radio station, broadcasting on it's own frequency.

Anyway, coming back to Don's device shown in the photograph above, the electrical drive is from a 12-volt battery which is not seen in the photograph. Interestingly, Don remarks that if the length of the wires connecting the battery to the inverter are exactly one quarter of the wave length of the frequency of the oscillating magnetic field generated by the circuit, then the current induced in the battery wires will recharge the battery continuously, even if the battery is supplying power to the circuit at the same time.

The battery supplies a small current through a protecting diode, to a standard off-the-shelf "true sine-wave" inverter. An inverter is a device which produces mains-voltage Alternating Current from a DC battery. As Don wants adjustable voltage, he feeds the output from the inverter into a variable transformer called a "Variac" although this is often made as part of the neon-driver circuit to allow the brightness of the neon tube to be adjusted by the user. This arrangement produces an AC output voltage which is adjustable from zero volts up to the full mains voltage (or a little higher, although Don does not want to use a higher voltage). The use of this kind of adjustment usually makes it essential for the inverter to be a true sine-wave type. As the power requirement of the neon-tube driver circuit is so low, the inverter should not cost very much and Don specifies just 140 watts of continuous current for the inverter specification.

The neon-tube (or "gas-discharge" tube) driver circuit is a standard off-the-shelf device used to drive neon tube displays for commercial establishments. The one used by Don contains an oscillator and a step-up transformer, which together produce an Alternating Current of 4,000 volts at a frequency of 35,100 Hz (sometimes written as 35.1 kHz). The term "Hz" stands for "cycles per second". It should be noted, however, that since Don bought his neon-tube driver module, the design of many of those modules has been altered to include protection circuitry which is liable to prevent the module operating properly in this circuit. It might be worth considering building your own solid-state circuit as shown later on in this chapter. If you do that, then you have full control of the frequency and the output and are not dependent on anyone else’s circuit design.

In this circuit, Don lowers the 4,000 volts as he gets great power output at lower input voltages and the cost of the output capacitors is a significant factor. The particular neon-tube driver circuit which Don is using here, has two separate outputs, so Don connects them together and uses a blocking diode in each line to prevent either of them affecting the other one. Not easily seen in the photograph, the high-voltage output line has a very small, encapsulated, spark gap in it and the line is also earthed. This device is commonly used as a lightning strike protection component but it is an active component in Don's circuit and it lights continuously when the device is running. It looks like this:


Please note that when an earth connection is mentioned in connection with Don Smith's devices, we are talking about an actual wire connection to a metal object physically buried in the ground, whether it is a long copper rod driven into the ground, or an old car radiator buried in a hold like Tariel Kapanadze uses, or a buried metal plate. When Thomas Henry Moray performed his requested demonstration deep in the countryside at a location chosen by the sceptics, the light bulbs which formed his demonstration electrical load, glowed more brightly with each hammer stroke as a length of gas pipe was hammered into the ground to form his earth connection.

The output of the neon-tube driver circuit is used to drive the primary "L1" winding of a Tesla Coil style transformer. This looks ever so simple and straightforward, but there are some subtle details which need to have attention paid to them.

The operating frequency of 35.1 kHz is set and maintained by the neon-tube driver circuitry, and so, in theory, we do not have to do any direct tuning ourselves. However, we want the resonant frequency of the L1 coil and the capacitor across it to match the neon-driver circuit frequency. The frequency of the "L1" coil winding will induce exactly the same frequency in the "L2" secondary winding with the “C6” tuning capacitor across it. However, we need to pay special attention to the ratio of the wire lengths of the two coil windings as we want these two windings to resonate together.

A rule of thumb followed by most Tesla Coil builders is to have the same weight of copper in the L1 and L2 coils, which means that the wire of the L1 coil is usually much thicker than the wire of the L2 coil. If the L1 coil is to be one quarter of the length of the L2 coil, then we would expect the cross-sectional area of the L1 coil to be four times that of the wire of the L2 coil (as the area is proportional to the square of the radius, and the square of two is four, so doubling the wire diameter gives four times the cross-sectional area of the copper wire)


Don uses a plastic tube as the former for his "L1" primary coil winding. As you can see here, the wire is fed into the former, leaving sufficient clearance to allow the former to be slid all the way into the outer coil tube. The wire is fed up inside the pipe and out through another hole to allow the coil turns to be made on the outside of the pipe. There appear to be five turns, but Don does not always go for a complete number of turns, so it might be 4.3 turns or some other value. The key point here is that the length of wire in the "L1" coil turns is exactly one quarter of the length of wire in the "L2" coil turns.

The "L2" coil is a commercial 3-inch diameter unit from Barker & Williamson, constructed from uninsulated, solid, single-strand "tinned" copper wire. Don has taken this coil and unwound four turns at the centre of the coil in order to make a centre-tap. He then measured the exact length of wire in the remaining section and made the length of the "L1" coil turns to be exactly one quarter of that length. The wire used for the "L1" coil looks like Don's favourite "Jumbo Speaker Wire" which is a very flexible wire with a very large number of extremely fine uninsulated copper wires inside it.

You will notice that Don has placed a plastic collar on each side of the winding, matching the thickness of the wire, in order to create a secure sliding operation inside the outer "L2" pipe coil former, and the additional plastic collars positioned further along the pipe provide further support for the inner coil. This sliding action allows the primary coil "L1" to be positioned at any point along the length of the "L2" secondary coil, and that has a marked effect on the operation of the system.



The "L2" coil has two separate sections, each of seventeen turns. One point to note is that while the coil is placed on a larger diameter transparent tube, the turns are spaced apart using slotted strips to support the wires and maintain an accurate spacing between adjacent turns. While the spacing might be to avoid sparking because of the high voltage generated in this coil, it must be remembered that spacing coil turns apart like this alters the characteristics of the coil, changing it's main energy-storing capability from "inductive" to "capacitive" mode. Every coil has resistance, inductance and capacitance, but the form of the coil construction has a major effect on the ratio of these three characteristics. The coil assembly is held in position on the base board by two off-white plastic cable ties. The nearer half of the coil is effectively connected across the further half as shown in the circuit diagram above.

One point which Don stresses, is that the length of the wire in the "L1" coil and the length of wire in the "L2" coil, must be an exact even division or multiple of each other (in this case, the "L2" wire length in each half of the "L2" coil is exactly four times as long as the "L1" coil wire length). This is likely to cause the "L1" coil to have part of a turn, due to the different coil diameters. For example, if the length of the "L2" coil wire is 160 inches and "L1" is to be one quarter of that length, namely, 40 inches. Then, if the "L1" coil has an effective diameter of 2.25 inches, (allowing for the thickness of the wire when wound on a 2-inch diameter former), then the "L1" coil would have 5.65 (or 5 and 2/3) turns which causes the finishing turn of "L2" to be 240 degrees further around the coil former than the start of the first turn - that is, five full turns plus two thirds of the sixth turn.

The L1 / L2 coil arrangement is a Tesla Coil. The positioning of the "L1" coil along the length of the "L2" coil, adjusts the voltage to current ratio produced by the coil. When the "L1" coil is near the middle of the "L2" coil, then the amplified voltage and amplified current are roughly the same. However, Don stresses that the "height" length of the coil (when standing vertically) controls the voltage produced while the coil "width" (the diameter of the turns) controls the current produced.



The exact wire length ratio of the turns in the "L1" and "L2" coils gives them an almost automatic synchronous tuning with each other, and the exact resonance between them can be achieved by the positioning of the "L1" coil along the length of the "L2" coil.

Don has also connected a small capacitor across the "L2" coil, and that optional component is marked as "C2" in the circuit diagram and the value used by Don happened to be a single 47nF, high-voltage capacitor. As the two halves of the "L2" coil are effectively connected across each other, it is only necessary to have one capacitor for "L2":



There are various ways of dealing with the output from the "L2" coil in order to get large amounts of conventional electrical power out of the device. The method shown here uses the four very large capacitors seen in the photograph. Don remarks that he has to be very careful to keep the voltage to the neon-tube driver circuit turned down in order to avoid getting more than 2,000 volts on these output storage capacitors.

This capacitor bank is fed through two diodes which are rated for high voltage operation. In the build shown in the photographs and the circuit diagram, the output is rated at 2,000 volts and 6,000 watts, in which case, the output diodes have to be able to handle 3 amps continuously, but at start-up when the capacitor bank is fully discharged that current may well be exceeded while the capacitor bank charges up.

When the circuit is running, the storage capacitor bank behaves like a 2,000 volt battery which never runs down and which can supply 3 amps of current for as long as you want. The circuitry for producing a 220 volt 50 Hz AC output or a 110 volt 60 Hz AC output from the storage capacitors is just standard electronics.

The output current flows through the left hand winding on the brown cylindrical former, and that induces a current in the right-hand winding. This additional current is used to provide charging power for the battery used to drive the inverter. A possible circuit arrangement for doing this might be as shown here:



The DC output produced by the four diodes is then used to charge the driving battery, and the power level produced is substantially greater than the minor current drain from the battery. Consequently, it is a sensible precaution to pass this current to the battery via a circuit which prevents the battery voltage rising higher than it should. A simple voltage level sensor can be used to switch off the charging when the battery has reached its optimum level. Simple circuitry of the type shown in chapter 12 can be used for controlling and limiting the charging process. The components on Don's board are laid out like this:



Don draws attention to the fact that the cables used to connect the output of "L2" to the output of the board, connecting the storage capacitors on the way, are very high-voltage rated cables with special multiple coverings to ensure that the cables will remain sound over an indefinite period. It should be remarked at this point, that the outer 3" diameter coil used by Don, is not wound on a former, but in order to get higher performance at high frequencies, the turns are supported with four separate strips physically attached to the turns - the technique described later in this document as being an excellent way for home construction of such coils.

  Please bear in mind that the voltages here and their associated power levels are literally lethal and perfectly capable of killing anyone who handles the device carelessly when it is powered up. When a replication of this device is ready for routine use, it must be encased so that none of the high-voltage connections can be touched by anyone. This is not a suggestion, but it is a mandatory requirement, despite the fact that the components shown in the photographs are laid out in what would be a most dangerous fashion were the circuit to be powered up as it stands. Under no circumstances, construct and test this circuit unless you are already experienced in the use of high-voltage circuits or can be supervised by somebody who is experienced in this field. This is a "one hand in the pocket at all times" type of circuit and it needs to be treated with great care and respect at all times, so be sensible.

It may also be necessary to use an earthed screen around the device in order to prevent radio frequency emissions. The remainder of the circuit is not mounted on the board, possibly because there are various ways in which the required end result can be achieved. The one suggested here is perhaps the most simple solution:



The voltage has to be dropped, so an iron-cored mains-frequency step-down transformer is used to do this. To get the frequency to the standard mains frequency for the country in which the device is to be used, an oscillator is used to generate that particular mains frequency. The oscillator output is used to drive a suitable high-voltage semiconductor device, be it an FET transistor, an IGBT device, or whatever. This device has to switch the working current at 2,000 volts, though admittedly, that will be a current which will be very much lower than the final output current, due to the higher voltage on the primary winding of the transformer. When using this circuit, the available power will be limited by the current handling capabilities of this output transformer, so a custom-wound unit with heavy-duty wire and a substantial frame will be needed to provide the full six kilowatts of power.

As the circuit is capable of picking up additional magnetic pulses, such as those generated by other equipment, nearby lightning strikes, etc. an electronic component called a "varistor" marked "V" in the diagram, is connected across the load. This device acts as a voltage spike suppressor as it short circuits any voltage above its design voltage, protecting the load from power surges.

Don also explains an even more simple version which does not need a Variac, high voltage capacitors or high voltage diodes. Here, a DC output is accepted which means that high-frequency step-down transformer operation can be used. This calls for an air-core transformer which you would wind yourself from heavy duty wire. Mains loads would then be powered by using a standard off-the-shelf inverter. In this version, it is of course, necessary to make the "L1" turns wire length exactly one quarter of the "L2" turns wire length in order to make the two coils resonate together. The operating frequency of each of these coils is imposed on them by the output frequency of the neon-tube driver circuit. That frequency is maintained throughout the entire circuit until it is rectified by the four diodes feeding the low-voltage storage capacitor. The target output voltage will be either just over 12 volts or just over 24 volts, depending on the voltage rating of the inverter which is to be driven by the system. This is effectively two Tesla Coils back-to-back and the circuit diagram might be:



As many people will find the nomograph chart in Don's pdf document very difficult to understand and use, here is an easier version:



The objective here is to determine the "reactance" or 'AC resistance' in ohms and the way to do that is as follows:

Suppose that your neon-tube driver is running at 30 kHz and you are using a capacitor of 100 nF (which is the same as 0.1 microfarad) and you want to know what is the AC resistance of your capacitor is at that frequency. Also, what coil inductance would have that same AC resistance. Then the procedure for finding that out is as follows:



Draw a straight line from your 30 kHz frequency (purple line) through your 100 nanofarad capacitor value and carry the line on as far as the (blue) inductance line as shown above.

You can now read the reactance ("AC resistance") off the red line, which looks like 51 ohms to me. This means that when the circuit is running at a frequency of 30 kHz, then the current flow through your 100 nF capacitor will be the same as through a 51 ohm resistor. Reading off the blue "Inductance" line that same current flow at that frequency would occur with a coil which has an inductance of 0.28 millihenries.



Another device of Don's is particularly attractive in that almost no construction is needed, all of the components being available commercially, and the output power being adaptable to any level which you want. Don particularly likes this circuit because it demonstrates COP>1 so neatly.



The coil in the centre of the board is a power transmitter made from a Tesla Coil constructed from two Barker & Williamson ready-made coils. Three more of the inner coil are also used as power receivers. The outer, larger diameter coil is a few turns taken from one of their standard coils and organised so that the coil wire length is one quarter of the coil wire length of the inner coil ("L2").

As before, a commercial neon-tube driver module is used to power the "L1" outer coil with high voltage and high frequency. It should be understood that as power is drawn from the local environment each time the power driving the transmitter coil "L1" cycles, that the power available is very much higher at higher frequencies. The power at mains frequency of less than 100 Hz is far, far less than the power available at 35,000 Hz, so if faced with the choice of buying a 25 kHz neon-tube driver module or a 35 kHz module, then the 35 kHz module is likely to give a much better output power at every voltage level.



The "L1" short outer coil is held in a raised position by the section of white plastic pipe in order to position it correctly relative to the smaller diameter "L2" secondary coil. Again, it appears to have five turns:



The secondary coils are constructed using Barker & Williamson's normal method of using slotted strips to hold the tinned, solid copper wire turns in place.



As there are very slight differences in the manufactured coils, each one is tuned to the exact transmitter frequency and a miniature neon is used to show when the tuning has been set correctly.

The key feature of this device is the fact that any number of receiver coils can be placed near the transmitter and each will receive a full electrical pick up from the local environment, without altering the power needed to drive the Tesla Coil transmitter - more and more output without increasing the input power - unlimited COP values, all of which are over 1. The extra power is flowing in from the local environment where there is almost unlimited amounts of excess energy and that inflow is caused by the rapidly vibrating magnetic field generated by the central Tesla Coil. While the additional coils appear to just be scattered around the base board, this is not the case. The YouTube video demonstrates that the pick-up of these coils is affected to a major degree by the distance from the radiating magnetic field. This is to do with the wavelength of the signal driving the Tesla Coil, so the coils shown above are all positioned at exactly the same distance from the Tesla Coil. You still can have as many pick-up coils as you want, but they will be mounted in rings around the Tesla Coil and the coils in each ring will be at the same distance from the Tesla Coil in the centre.

Each of the pick up coils act exactly the same as the "L2" secondary coil of the Tesla Coil transmitter, each picking up the same level of power. Just as with the actual "L2" coil, each will need an output circuit arrangement as described for the previous device. Presumably, the coil outputs could be connected in parallel to increase the output amperage, as they are all resonating at the same frequency and in phase with each other. Each will have its own separate output circuit with a step-down isolation transformer and frequency adjustment as before. If any output is to be a rectified DC output, then no frequency adjustment is needed, just rectifier diodes and a smoothing capacitor following the step-down transformer which will need to be an air core or ferrite core type due to the high frequency. High voltage capacitors are very expensive. The web site shows various ways of making your own high-voltage capacitors and the advantages and disadvantages of each type.

There are two practical points which need to be mentioned. Firstly, as the Don Smith devices shown above feed radio frequency waveforms to coils which transmit those signals, it may be necessary to enclose the device in an earthed metal container in order not to transmit illegal radio signals. Secondly, as it can be difficult to obtain high-voltage high-current diodes, they can be constructed from several lower power diodes. To increase the voltage rating, diodes can be wired in a chain. Suitable diodes are available as repair items for microwave ovens. These typically have about 4,000 volt ratings and can carry a good level of current. As there will be minor manufacturing differences in the diodes, it is good practice to connect a high value resistor (in the 1 to 10 megohm range) across each diode as that ensures that there is a roughly equal voltage drop across each of the diodes:


If the diode rating of these diodes were 4 amps at 4,000 volts, then the chain of five could handle 4 amps at 20,000 volts. The current capacity can be increased by connecting two or more chains in parallel.

Two DVDs containing video recordings of Don Smith's lectures are available for purchase via this website

Various questions from readers indicate that the operation of AC circuits is not really understood, so electronics experts can skip this next section.

AC Circuits. This is a lightweight introduction to Alternating Current circuits and pulsed DC circuits for people who have not read Chapter 12 which is an electronics tutorial. Let me say again, that I am mainly self-taught, and so this is just a general introduction based on my present understanding.

Alternating Current, generally called “AC” is called that because the voltage of this type of power supply is not a constant value. A car battery, for instance, is DC and has a fairly constant voltage usually about 12.8 volts when in it’s fully charged state. If you connect a voltmeter across a car battery and watch it, the voltage reading will not change. Minute after minute it says exactly the same because it is a DC source.

If you connect an AC voltmeter across an AC power supply, it too will give a steady reading, but it is telling a lie. The voltage is changing all the time in spite of that steady meter reading. What the meter is doing is assuming that the AC waveform is a sine wave like this:


and based on that assumption, it displays a voltage reading which is called the “Root Mean Square” or “RMS” value. The main difficulty with a sine wave is that the voltage is below zero volts for exactly the same length of time as it is above zero volts, so if you average it, the result is zero volts, which is not a satisfactory result because you can get a shock from it and so it can’t be zero volts, no matter what the arithmetical average is.

To get over this problem, the voltage is measured thousands of times per second and the results squared (that is, the value is multiplied by itself) and then those values are averaged. This has the advantage that when the voltage is say, minus 10 volts and you square it, the answer is plus 100 volts. In fact, all of the answers will be positive, which means that you can add them together, average them and get a sensible result. However, you end up with a value which is far too high because you squared every measurement, and so you need to take the square root of that average (or “mean”) value, and that is where the fancy sounding “Root Mean Square” name comes from – you are taking the (square) root of the (average or) mean value of the squared measurements.

With a sine wave like this, the voltage peaks are 41.4% higher than the RMS value which everyone talks about. This means that if you feed 100 volts AC through a rectifier bridge of four diodes and feed it into a capacitor the capacitor voltage will not be 100 volts DC but instead it will be 141.4 volts DC and you need to remember that when choosing the voltage rating of the capacitor. In that instance I would suggest a capacitor which is made to operate with voltages up to 200 volts.

You probably already knew all of that, but it may not have occurred to you that if you use a standard AC voltmeter on a waveform which is not a sine wave, that the reading on the meter is most unlikely to be correct or anywhere near correct. So, please don’t merrily connect an AC voltmeter across a circuit which is producing sharp voltage spikes like, for instance, one of John Bedini’s battery pulsing circuits, and think that the meter reading means anything (other than meaning that you don’t understand what you are doing).

You will, hopefully, have learned that power in watts is determined by multiplying the current in amps by the voltage in volts. For example, 10 amps of current flowing out of a 12 volt power supply, represents 120 watts of power. Unfortunately, that only holds true for circuits which are operating on DC, or AC circuits which have only resistors in them. The situation changes for AC circuits which have non-resistive components in them.

The circuits of this type which you are likely to come across are circuits which have coils in them, and you need to think about what you are doing when you deal with these types of circuit. For example, consider this circuit:


This is the output section of a prototype which you have just built. The input to the prototype is DC and measures at 12 volts, 2 amps (which is 24 watts). Your AC voltmeter on the output reads 15 volts and your AC ammeter reads 2.5 amps and you are delighted because 15 x 2.5 = 37.5 which looks much bigger than the 24 watts of input power. But, just before you go rushing off to announce on YouTube that you have made a prototype with COP = 1.56 or 156% efficient, you need to consider the real facts.

This is an AC circuit and unless your prototype is producing a perfect sine wave, then the AC voltmeter reading will be meaningless. It is just possible that your AC ammeter is one of the few types that can accurately measure the current no matter what sort of waveform is fed to it, but it is distinctly possible that it will be a digital meter which assesses current by measuring the AC voltage across a resistor in series with the output, and if that is the case, it will probably be assuming a sine wave. The odds are that both readings are wrong, but let’s take the case where we have great meters which are reading the values perfectly correctly. Then the output will be 37.5 watts, won’t it? Well, actually, no it won’t. The reason for this is that the circuit is feeding the transformer winding which is a coil and coils don’t work like that.

The problem is that, unlike a resistor, when you apply a voltage across a coil the coil starts absorbing energy and feeding it into the magnetic field around the coil, so there is a delay before the current reaches it’s maximum value. With DC, this generally doesn’t matter very much, but with AC where the voltage is changing continuously, it matters a great deal. The situation can be as shown in this graph of both voltage and current:


At first, this does not look like any great problem, but it has a very significant effect on the actual power in watts. To get the 37.5 watts output which we were talking about earlier, we multiplied the average voltage level by the average current level. But these two values do not occur at the same time and that has a major effect.

As this can be a little difficult to see, let’s take the peak values rather than the averages as they are easier to see. Let’s say that in our example graph that the voltage peak is 10 volts and the current peak is 3 amps. If this were DC we would multiply them together and say that the power was 30 watts. But with AC, this does not work due to the timing difference:


When the voltage is peaking, the current is nowhere near it’s peak value of 3 amps:


As a result of this, instead of getting our expected peak power at the top of the voltage peak, the actual power in watts is very much lower – less than half of what we were expecting. Not so good, but it gets worse when you look at the situation more closely. Take a look at what the voltage is when the current crosses the zero line, that is, when the current is zero. The output power is zero when the current is zero but this occurs when the voltage is at a very high value:


The same goes for when the voltage is zero. When the voltage is zero, then the power is also zero, and you will notice that this occurs when the current is at a high value:


The power is not the average current multiplied by the average voltage if there is a coil involved in the circuit – it will be less than that by an amount known as the “power factor” and I’ll leave you to work out why it is called that.

So, how do you determine what the power is? It is done by sampling the voltage and current many times per second and averaging those combined results:


Both the voltage and the current are sampled at the times indicated by the vertical red lines and those figures are used to calculate the actual power level. In this example, only a few samplings are shown, but in practice, a very large number of samples will be taken. The piece of equipment which does this is known as a wattmeter as it measures watts of power. The sampling can be done by windings inside the instrument, resulting in an instrument which can be damaged by overloading without the needle being anywhere near full deflection, or it can be done by digital sampling and mathematical integration. Most digital sampling versions of these meters only operate at high frequencies, typically over 400,000 cycles per second. Both varieties of wattmeter can handle any waveform and not just sine waves.

The power company supplying your home, measures the current and assumes that the full voltage is present during all of the time that the current is being drawn. If you are powering a powerful electric motor from the mains, then this current lag will cost you money as the power company does not take it into account. It is possible to correct the situation by connecting one or more suitable capacitors across the motor to minimise the power loss.

With a coil (fancy name “inductor” symbol “L”), AC operation is very different to DC operation. The coil has a DC resistance which can be measured with the ohms range of a multimeter, but that resistance does not apply when AC is being used as the AC current flow is not determined by the DC resistance of the coil. Because of this, a second term has to be used for the current-controlling factor of the coil, and the term chosen is “impedance” or for people who like to make everything sound unduly complicated “reactance”. I will stick with the term “impedance” as it is clear that it is the feature of the coil which “impedes” AC current flow through the coil.

The impedance of a coil depends on it’s size, shape, method of winding, number of turns and core material. It also depends on the frequency of the AC voltage being applied to it. If the core is made up of iron or steel, usually thin layers of iron which are insulated from each other, then it can only handle low frequencies. You can forget about trying to pass 10,000 cycles per second (“Hz”) through the coil as the core just can’t change it’s magnetic poles fast enough to cope with that frequency. A core of that type is ok for the very low 50 Hz or 60 Hz frequencies used for mains power, which are kept that low so that electric motors can use it.

For higher frequencies, ferrite can be used for a core and that is why some portable radios use ferrite-rod aerials, which are a bar of ferrite with a coil wound on it. For higher frequencies (or higher efficiencies) iron dust encapsulated in epoxy resin is used. An alternative is to not use any core material and that is usually referred to as an “air-core” coil. These are not limited in frequency by the core but they have a very much lower inductance for any given number of turns. The efficiency of the coil is called it’s “Q” (for “Quality”) and the higher the Q factor, the better. The resistance of the wire lowers the Q factor.

A coil has inductance, and resistance caused by the wire, and capacitance caused by the turns being near each other. However, having said that, the inductance is normally so much bigger than the other two components that we tend to ignore the other two. Something which may not be immediately obvious is that the impedance to AC current flow through the coil depends on how fast the voltage is changing. If the AC voltage applied to a coil completes one cycle every ten seconds, then the impedance will be much lower than if the voltage cycles a million times per second.

If you had to guess, you would think that the impedance would increase steadily as the AC frequency increased. In other words, a straight-line graph type of change. That is not the case. Due to a feature called resonance, there is one particular frequency at which the impedance of the coil increases massively. This is used in the tuning method for AM radio receivers. In the very early days when electronic components were hard to come by, variable coils were sometimes used for tuning. We still have variable coils today, generally for handling large currents rather than radio signals, and we call them “rheostats” and some look like this:


These have a coil of wire wound around a hollow former and a slider can be pushed along a bar, connecting the slider to different winds in the coil depending on it’s position along the supporting bar. The terminal connections are then made to the slider and to one end of the coil. The position of the slider effectively changes the number of turns of wire in the part of the coil which is being used in the circuit. Changing the number of turns in the coil, changes the resonant frequency of that coil. AC current finds it very, very hard to get through a coil which has the same resonant frequency as the AC current frequency. Because of this, it can be used as a radio signal tuner:


If the coil’s resonant frequency is changed to match that of a local radio station by sliding the contact along the coil, then that particular AC signal frequency from the radio transmitter finds it almost impossible to get through the coil and so it (and only it) diverts through the diode and headphones as it flows from the aerial wire to the earth wire and the radio station is heard in the headphones. If there are other radio signals coming down the aerial wire, then, because they are not at the resonant frequency of the coil, they flow freely through the coil and don’t go through the headphones.

This system was soon changed when variable capacitors became available as they are cheaper to make and they are more compact. So, instead of using a variable coil for tuning the radio signal, a variable capacitor connected across the tuning coil did the same job:


While the circuit diagram above is marked “Tuning capacitor” that is actually quite misleading. Yes, you tune the radio receiver by adjusting the setting of the variable capacitor, but, what the capacitor is doing is altering the resonant frequency of the coil/capacitor combination and it is the resonant frequency of that combination which is doing exactly the same job as the variable coil did on it’s own.

This draws attention to two very important facts concerning coil/capacitor combinations. When a capacitor is placed across a coil “in parallel” as shown in this radio receiver circuit, then the combination has a very high impedance (resistance to AC current flow) at the resonant frequency. But if the capacitor is placed “in series” with the coil, then there is nearly zero impedance at the resonant frequency of the combination:


This may seem like something which practical people would not bother with, after all, who really cares? However, it is a very practical point indeed. Remember that Don Smith often uses an off-the-shelf neon-tube driver module as an easy way to provide a high-voltage, high-frequency AC current source, typically, 6,000 volts at 30,000 Hz. He then feeds that power into a Tesla Coil which is itself, a power amplifier. The arrangement is like this:


People who try to replicate Don’s designs tend to say “I get great sparks at the spark gap until I connect the L1 coil and then the sparks stop. This circuit can never work because the resistance of the coil is too low”.

If the resonant frequency of the L1 coil does not match the frequency being produced by the neon-tube driver circuit, then the low impedance of the L1 coil at that frequency, will definitely pull the voltage of the neon-tube driver down to a very low value. But if the L1 coil has the same resonant frequency as the driver circuit, then the L1 coil (or the L1coil/capacitor combination shown on the right, will have a very high resistance to current flow through it and it will work well with the driver circuit. So, no sparks, means that the coil tuning is off. It is the same as tuning a radio receiver, get the tuning wrong and you don’t hear the radio station.

This is very nicely demonstrated using simple torch bulbs and two coils in the YouTube video showing good output for almost no input power: here and while only one resonant pick-up coil is shown, there is the possibility of using many resonant pick-up coils with just the one transmitter.

It should be stated that people have tried to replicate the devices which Don has described and have not been successful. Consequently, they believe that Don’s presentations are a hoax and that he has never had any device which worked as he claimed. That is a rather doubtful conclusion to draw as the only certain thing which can be concluded is that they failed in their attempt. It is my experience that some people who attempt replications do not seem to have the ‘knack’ or perseverance needed to reach a successful result, while others do have what it takes. For example, many people tried to replicate Stan Meyer’s water-splitter which he called his “Water Fuel Cell” or “WFC” for short, and they did not succeed. Dave Lawton in Wales decided to produce a replication and he had zero success for a whole month of effort. After a month of trying, his cell suddenly bust into substantial gas production, showing that the electrode pipes had to be “conditioned” before the cell would work properly. Most people would have given up long before the month was up, and declared that the WFC was a hoax. As a result of Dave’s efforts and his generous sharing of what he did (in chapter 10), many people have now been very successful in replicating Stan Meyer’s design. So, I will leave it up to you to decide if Don Smith’s devices are a hoax. It should be understood, that there is no particular reason why anyone who was successful with Don’s designs would necessarily tell me. Most will never even have heard of me. Bearing that in mind, I have been told of one man who used his common sense and produced an impressive result. He used a Tesla Coil as the driving force, and then used a second Tesla Coil back-to-back with the first one, to step the high voltage back down again. Doing that, he was able to light a series of powerful light bulbs from the “L1” output coils. He also confirmed that doubling the voltage, quadrupled the power output, verifying what Don said. He also found that adding additional coils with bulbs to the output Tesla Coil, did not increase the input power at all, did not cause any of the existing light bulbs to shine any less brightly, and yet lit the additional bulbs. That would appear to be confirmation of Don’s statement that any number of magnetic copies of the original oscillating magnetic field of the first Tesla Coil, can provide a full-power electrical output without requiring any additional input power. I’m no expert, but my understanding of the arrangement is:


As the large diameter coil is exactly one quarter the length of the smaller diameter coil, there is an automatic resonance of both when the applied frequency is just right. As the first narrow coil is identical to the second narrow coil, they are also automatically resonant together. Again, as the large coils which feed the loads are exactly one quarter the wire length of the narrow coils, they also resonate at the common frequency and at that frequency, the input power is at its minimum while the output power is at its maximum. The spike at the top of each of the narrow coils is connected with a wire to channel the generated power from the first Tesla Coil to the second one.

As some readers may feel that there is some "black magic" about the neon-driver circuit used by Don to drive the Tesla Coil section of his circuitry and that if a suitable unit could not be purchased then the circuit could not be reproduced or tested, it seems reasonable to show how it operates and how it can be constructed from scratch:

The circuit itself is made up of an oscillator to convert the 12-volt DC supply into a pulsating current which is then stepped up to a high voltage by a transformer. Here is a circuit which has been used for this:


The supply for the 555 timer chip is protected against spikes and dips by the resistor "R" and the capacitor "C". The 555 timer chip acts as an oscillator or "clock" whose speed is governed by the two 10K resistors feeding the 440 nF capacitor. The step-up transformer is an ordinary (Model T Ford) car coil and the drive power to it is boosted by the IRF9130 FET transistor which is driven by the 555 chip output coming from it's pin 3.

The output from the car coil is rectified by the diode, which needs to have a very high voltage rating as the voltage at this point is now very high. The rectified voltage pulses are stored in a very high-voltage capacitor before being used to drive a Tesla Coil. As a powerful output is wanted, two car coils are used and their outputs combined as shown here:


You will notice that the car coil has only three terminals and the terminal marked "+" is the one with the connection common to both of the coils inside the housing. The coil may look like this:


and the "+" is generally marked on the top beside the terminal with the two internal connections running to it. The circuit described so far is very close to that provided by a neon-tube driver circuit and it is certainly capable of driving a Tesla Coil.

There are several different way of constructing a Tesla Coil. It is not unusual to have several spark gaps connected in a chain. This arrangement is called a "series spark gap" because the spark gaps are connected "in series" which is just a technical way of saying "connected in a row". In the chapter on aerial systems, you will see that Hermann Plauston uses that style of spark gap with the very high voltages which he gets from his powerful aerial systems. One of the possible Tesla Coil designs uses a pancake coil as the "L1" coil as shown here:


The connection to the pancake coil is by a moveable clamp and the two coils are tuned to resonance by careful and gradual adjustment of that connection. The series spark gap can be constructed in various ways. The one shown here uses nuts and bolts projecting through two strips of a stiff, non-conducting material:


Tightening the bolts which compress the springs moves the bolt heads closer together and reduces the spark gaps. The electrical connections can be made to the end tags or to any of the intermediate wire connection straps if fewer spark gaps are required in the chain.

Let me remind you again that this is not a toy and very high voltages will be produced. Also, let me stress again that if you decide to construct anything, then you do so entire on your own responsibility. This document is only provided for information purposes and must not be seen as an encouragement to build any such device nor is any guarantee given that any of the devices described in this eBook will work as described should you decide to attempt to construct a replication prototype of your own. Generally, it takes skill and patience to achieve success with any free-energy device and Don Smith's devices are some of the most difficult, especially since he admits quite freely that he does not disclose all of the details.

The output capacitor marked "C1" in the circuit diagram above has to be able to handle very high voltages. There are various ways of dealing with this. Don dealt with it by getting very expensive capacitors manufactured by a specialist company. Some home-based constructors have had success using glass beer bottles filled with a salt solution. The outside of the bottles are wrapped in aluminium foil to form one of the contacts of the capacitor and bare wires are looped from deep inside each bottle on to the next one, looping from the inside of one bottle to the inside of the next one, and eventually forming the other contact of the capacitor. While that appears to work well, it is not a very convenient thing to carry around.

One method which has been popular in the past is to use two complete rolls of aluminium foil, sometimes called "baking foil", laying them one flat, covering it with one or more layers of plastic cling film and laying the second roll of foil on top of the plastic. The three layers are then rolled up to form the capacitor. Obviously, several of these can be connected together in parallel in order to increase the capacitance of the set. The thicker the plastic, the lower the capacitance but the higher the voltage which can be handled.

The November 1999 issue of Popular Electronics suggests using 33 sheets of the thin aluminium used as a flashing material by house builders. At that time it was supplied in rolls which were ten inches (250 mm) wide, so their design uses 14" (355 mm) lengths of the aluminium. The plastic chosen to separate the plates was polythene sheet 0.062 inch (1.6 mm) thick which is also available from a builders merchants outlet. The plastic is cut to 11 inch (280 mm) by 13 inch (330 mm) and assembly is as follows:


The sandwich stack of sheets is then clamped together between two rigid timber sheets. The tighter that they are clamped, the closer the plates and the higher the capacitance. The electrical connections are made by running a bolt through the projecting ends of the plates. With two thicknesses of plastic sheet and one of aluminium, there should be room for a washer between each pair of plates at each end and that would improve the clamping and the electrical connection. An alternative is to cut a corner off each plate and position them alternatively so that almost no plate area is ineffective.

As Don Smith has demonstrated in one of his video presentations, Nikola Tesla was perfectly correct when he stated that directing the discharge from a Tesla Coil on to a metal plate (or in Don's case, one of the two metal plates of a two-plate capacitor where a plastic sheet separates the plates just as shown above), produces a very powerful current flow onwards through a good earth connection. Obviously, if an electrical load is positioned between the plates and the earth connection, then the load can be powered to a high level of current, giving a very considerable power gain.


Coil Construction:   The Barker & Williamson coils used by Don in his constructions are expensive to purchase. Some years ago, in an article in the “QST” amateur radio publication, Robert H. Johns shows how similar (if not superior) coils can be constructed without any great difficulty.


These home-made coils have excellent “Q” Quality factors, some even better than the tinned copper wire coils of Barker & Williamson because the majority of electrical flow is at the surface of the wire and copper is a better conductor of electricity than the silver tinning material.

The inductance of a coil increases if the turns are close together. The capacitance of a coil decreases if the turns are spread out. A good compromise is to space the turns so that there is a gap between the turns of one wire thickness. A common construction method with Tesla Coil builders is to use nylon fishing line or plastic strimmer cord between the turns to create the gap. The method used by Mr Johns allows for even spacing without using any additional material. The key feature is to use a collapsible former and wind the coil on the former, space the turns out evenly and then clamp them in position with strips of epoxy resin, removing the former when the resin has set and cured.

Mr Johns has difficulty with his epoxy being difficult to keep in place, but when mixed with the West System micro fibres, epoxy can be made any consistency and it can be applied as a stiff paste without any loss of it’s properties. The epoxy is kept from sticking to the former by placing a strip of electrical tape on each side of the former.


I suggest that the plastic pipe used as the coil former is twice the length of the coil to be wound as that allows a good degree of flexing in the former when the coil is being removed. Before the two slots are cut in the plastic pipe, a wooden spreader piece is cut and it’s ends rounded so that it is a push-fit in the pipe. This spreader piece is used to hold the sides of the cut end exactly in position when the wire is being wrapped tightly around the pipe.

Two or more small holes are drilled in the pipe beside where the slots are to be cut. These holes are used to anchor the ends of the wire by passing them through the hole and bending them. Those ends have to be cut off before the finished coil is slid off the former, but they are very useful while the epoxy is being applied and hardening. The pipe slots are cut to a generous width, typically 10 mm or more.

The technique is then to wedge the wooden spreader piece in the slotted end of the pipe. Then anchor the end of the solid copper wire using the first of the drilled holes. The wire, which can be bare or insulated, is then wrapped tightly around the former for the required number of turns, and the other end of the wire secured in one of the other drilled holes. It is common practice to make the turns by rotating the former. When the winding is completed, the turns can be spaced out more evenly if necessary, and then a strip of epoxy paste applied all along one side of the coil. When that has hardened, (or immediately if the epoxy paste is stiff enough), the pipe is turned over and a second epoxy strip applied to the opposite side of the coil. A strip of paxolin board or strip-board can be made part of the epoxy strip. Alternatively, an L-shaped plastic mounting bracket or a plastic mounting bolt can be embedded in the epoxy ready for the coil installation later on.

When the epoxy has hardened, typically 24 hours later, the coil ends are snipped off, the spreader piece is tapped out with a dowel and the sides of the pipe pressed inwards to make it easy to slide the finished coil off the former. Larger diameter coils can be wound with small-diameter copper pipe.

The coil inductance can be calculated from:

Inductance in microhenrys 
L = d2n2 / (18d + 40l)

Where:
d is the coil diameter in inches measured from wire centre to wire centren is the number of turns in the coill is coil length in inches (1 inch = 25.4 mm)

Using this equation for working out the number of turns for a given inductance in microhenrys:




Kwang-jeek Lee   There is a most interesting patent application from Kwang-jeek Lee in which he shows clearly how arranging a resonant circuit which is placed between the power supply and the load which is being power by that power supply can have a spectacular effect. His patent application may be a little difficult for some to follow in detail, and if that is the case then please just pay attention to the overall effect as described by him here:

Patent Application US 2008/0297134 12th April 2008 Inventor: Kwang-jeek Lee CIRCUIT FOR TRANSMITTING AMPLIFIED RESONANT POWER TO A LOAD
ABSTRACT
A circuit for transferring amplified resonant power to a load is disclosed. The circuit transfers amplified resonant power, which is generated in an inductor of a conventional transformer when serial or parallel resonance of a conventional power supply is formed. This amplified power is transferred to a load through the conventional transformer. The circuit comprises of: a power supply for producing and supplying voltage or current; a power amplifier for generating amplified resonant power using the voltage or current; and a power transferring unit for transferring the amplified resonant power to the load using a transformer


TECHNICAL FIELD
The present invention relates to a power amplifier circuit and its power transferring capabilities. More particularly, this invention relates to a circuit which can transfer amplified resonant power, to a load through a conventional transformer, the power being generated by an inductor of a conventional transformer when serial or parallel resonance of a conventional power supply is formed.


BACKGROUND ART
An electric power supply produces electric power and supplies that electric power to a load which is connected directly to it. An example of such an electric power supply is an electric generator. When such an electric generator produces electric power, a transformer is used to transform the electric power into a voltage or current suited to the resistance of the load and then supplies it to the load.

With a conventional power supply, a primary power supply provides electric power directly to a load. That is, the consumption power of the load is directly provided by the independent power supply. A method where electric power provided from an independent power supply is amplified and then supplied to a load has not been known. If this is done, then the electric power consumption can be reduced. That is, such an idea becomes a landmark in the industry.


DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION
Therefore, it is an object of the present invention to provide a circuit for transferring amplified resonant power to a load. A circuit which is capable of transferring Q times the original power as an amplified resonant power output. This power is generated at an inductor of a conventional transformer when serial or parallel resonance of a conventional power supply is formed. This power is then passed to a load through a conventional transformer, thereby providing a higher amount of power to the load than can be supplied by a conventional circuit.

In accordance with an aspect of the present invention, the above and other objects can be accomplished by the provision of a circuit for transferring amplified resonant power to a load, comprising:
  1. A power supply for producing and supplying voltage or current;
  2. A power amplifier for generating amplified resonant power using that voltage or current; and
  3. A power-transferring unit for transferring the amplified resonant power to the load using a transformer.
Preferably, the power supply either supplies AC voltage, AC current, DC voltage or DC current. Ideally, the power amplifier should include:
  1. A primary inductor of the transformer; and
  2. A capacitor connected to the primary inductor in serial or in parallel.
Here, the amplified resonant power is stored in the primary inductor. Ideally, the reflective impedance at the primary side of the transformer has a relatively small value so that the power amplifier can maintain resonance.


BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The above and other object, feature and other advantages of the present invention will be more clearly understood from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:



Fig.1 is a schematic circuit block diagram according to an embodiment of the present invention;



Fig.2 is a view illustrating a circuit that transfers amplified resonant power, generated in serial resonance, to a load, according to an embodiment of the present invention;



Fig.3 shows equivalent circuit diagrams of a three-phase synchronous electric generator according to an embodiment of the present invention;



Fig.4A and Fig.4B are equivalent circuit diagrams of serial and parallel resonance circuits, respectively, according to an embodiment of the present invention;



Fig.5 is an equivalent circuit diagram of a transformer according to an embodiment of the present invention;



Fig.6A and Fig.6B are equivalent circuit diagrams when a transformer connected to a load is in serial resonance, according to an embodiment of the present invention;



Fig.7 is an exemplary view illustrating a transformer used in an embodiment of the present invention;



Fig.8 is an equivalent circuit diagram of an electric power amplification/transfer experiment circuit, according to an embodiment of the present invention;



Fig.9 shows equivalent circuit diagrams of a circuit used in an experiment according to the present invention;



Fig.10 is a circuit diagram where a load is directly connected to a power supply according to an experiment of the present invention;



Fig.11 is an equivalent circuit diagram of a final transformer for electric power transfer according to an experiment of the present invention.



Fig.12 is an equivalent circuit diagram of an electric power transfer resonant voltage source according to an experiment of the present invention;



Fig.13 is an equivalent circuit diagram of an electric power transfer resonant current source according to an experiment of the present invention;



Fig.14 is an equivalent circuit diagram of an electric power transfer transformer of a home electrical appliance, according to an experiment of the present invention; and



Fig.15 is an equivalent circuit diagram of an electric power transfer resonant current source of a home electrical appliance, for reducing consumption power of a load, according to an experiment of the present invention.


BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
Preferred embodiments of a circuit for transferring amplified resonant power, configured to include the above-described means, and their operations, will be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.



As shown in Fig.1, the circuit of the present invention is configured to include: a power supply 10 for producing and supplying electric power, a power amplifier 20 for resonating the electric power provided from the power supply 10 to generate amplified resonant power, and storing it; and a power-transferring unit 30 for transferring the amplified resonant power of the power amplifier 20 to a load 40.

The power supply 10 means a general purpose, independent power source. This is used in such a way so that its output voltage is increased or decreased to a voltage necessary for the load transformer, and then transferred to the load. However, in the present invention, the power supply 10 only functions as an accessory circuit which supplies current or voltage to the power amplifier 20 so that the power amplifier 20 can amplify it. The power supply 10 does not provide its electric power directly to the load.

The independent power supply source functioning as the power supply 10 may be implemented with an AC source and a DC source. The AC source includes an AC voltage source and an AC current source. The DC source includes a DC voltage source and a DC current source. When the power supply is a DC source, the output of the DC source can be converted to AC power by using an inverter.

The power amplifier 20 produces amplified resonant power using the voltage and current coming from the power supply 10. In an embodiment of the present invention, the amplified resonant power is transferred to a load through a transformer. More specifically, the power amplifier 20 produces the amplified resonant power using the primary inductor of the transformer, and that amplified power is then stored in the primary inductor.

Here, the power amplifier 20 is configured to include the primary inductor of the transformer and a capacitor connected to the primary inductor, either in serial or in parallel. The power amplifier 20 resonates and amplifies the power provided from the power supply 10 and then stores it in the inductor.

The power amplifier 20 contains an inductor (L) and capacitor (C), which are electrical parts which store energy, these are effectively connected to the power supply 10, and this enables the inductor (L) and capacitor (C) to synchronise with the frequency of the power source and so to form serial or parallel resonance. Therefore, the source power is amplified Q times and then stored in the inductor (L) and the capacitor (C).

When serial resonance is formed at a source voltage of Vg , Q times the source voltage, i.e., Q x Vg volts, is applied to the inductor. Here, the serial resonant power P caused by the resonant current Io flowing in the inductor is generated such that Ps =Q x Vg x Io watts.

On the other hand, when parallel resonance is formed, Q times input current of Ig , i.e., Q x Ig amps, flows into the inductor. Here, parallel resonant power Pp by a voltage Vp between both leads of the inductor generates as Pp = Q x Ig x Vp watts.

As such, in using serial or parallel resonance, the inductor for resonance stores Q times the input power P in it. Here, the type of resonance can be chosen according to the object of the circuit design, and here, the power generated in the inductor is reactive power, and, for convenience, will be denoted by power P.

The amplified resonant power, generated by the power amplifier 20, is transferred to the load 40 by the power transferring unit 30 which is a standard transformer. The power transferring unit 30 transfers the power, amplified Q times by the transformer in the power amplifier 20 , to the load. In order to transfer power in the most efficient manner, it is preferable that the coupling coefficient k be close to 1.

When serial resonance is formed, voltage V2 at the secondary side of the transformer, which will now be referred to as the "secondary voltage V2" , can be calculated by the following equation, based on the transformer principle. Here, the current I2 at the secondary side, which will now be referred to as "secondary current I2" , is assumed to be zero.

V2 = k x V1 / n     so

                                                                  V2 = k x Q x Vg / n     or 

                                                                  V2 =(Q / n ) x  k x Vg



Where:
Q is a quality factor of the circuit
n is the turns ratio of the transformer
k is the coupling coefficient
Vg is the source voltage and
V1 denotes a voltage between both leads of the inductor when it is in serial resonance.

When the transformer is operating, the secondary current I2 flows in the secondary side of the transformer. Then, reflective impedance Z21 is reflected from the secondary side to the primary side, thereby suppressing resonance at the primary side.

Therefore, the reflective impedance at the primary side, which will now be referred to as the "primary reflective impedance", is designed to be relatively small in order to maintain resonance in the power amplifier 20. In the present invention, an equation for voltage transfer to the secondary side and an equation for adjusting reflective impedance Z21 when resonance is formed, are derived and then applied to the circuit design. Therefore, based on the transformer principle, the present invention allows the amplified resonant power to be transferred to the load without loss.

The load 40 is a circuit which is provided with the power amplified Q times at the primary inductor of the transformer. When the secondary current I2 is not zero, resonance of the primary side of the transformer is broken by the reflective impedance of the transformer. To prevent this, the reflective impedance Z21 must be adjusted and resistance R0 of the load must be chosen to be the optimum value needed to maintain the resonance of the primary side of the transformer.



An embodiment of the circuit for transferring amplified resonant power to the load, as configured above, according to the present invention, is illustrated in Fig.2. Here, the circuit includes: a power supply 10 having an AC voltage source (Vg) and an internal resister (Rg) a power amplifier 20 having a primary inductor (L1) of a transformer and a capacitor (C1) serially connected to the inductor (L1) a power transferring unit 30 having the transformer and a load (R0) inputting resonant power, amplified by the power transferring unit 30.



Fig.3 shows equivalent circuit diagrams of a three-phase synchronous electric generator according to an embodiment of the present invention. In such a circuit, jXs denotes reactance of an electric generator and R1 denotes resistance of the inductor. The present invention transfers electric power to the load in such a way that: in order to apply an equivalent circuit for a single phase electric power generation to a circuit, a capacitor is added the circuit power is amplified by using resonance; and the amplified resonant power is provided directly to the load using the transformer principle. Therefore, the present invention transfers the amplified power to the load. On the other hand, the conventional power supply is connected directly to the load and transfers it's power to it.



Fig.4A and Fig.4B are diagrams illustrating a single-phase equivalent circuit of an electric generator to which serial or parallel resonance is applied to amplify the electric power. Such a circuit is arranged to include a power supply 10 and a power amplifier 20.

As shown in Fig.4A, a circuit to which serial resonance is applied, if resistance R1 of a coil is neglected, the quality factor Qs is expressed as
Qs = omega x L1 / Rg

Where:
Rg is the internal resistance of the power supply, and 

         R1 is the loss resistance of the coil. 

Here, the factor Qs of a circuit is generally greater than 10. Also, a voltage V1 between both leads of an inductor (L1) in serial resonance is expressed as V1 x Qs x Vg. Here, the power P1 stored in the inductor (L1) is expressed as follows:
P1 = V1 x Io   or

                                                                                       P1 = Qs x Vg x Io    or

                                                                                       P1 = Qs x Vg2 / Rg

Where: Io = Vg / Rg (Io being the resonance current)

As well, the source power Pg in serial resonance is expressed as:
Pg = Vg x Io    or

                                                                                        Pg = Vg2 / Rg   therefore: 

                                                                                        P1 = Qs x Pg   showing that the inductor (L1) when in serial 

                                                                                                               resonance, inputs Qs times the input power.



As shown in Fig.4B, the circuit to which parallel resonance is applied, just like the serial resonant circuit, Q times the input power is applied to both leads of the inductor. Since such power amplification in the parallel resonant circuit is similar to that of the serial resonant circuit, which has already been described above, its description will be omitted.



Fig.5 is an equivalent circuit diagram of a transformer used in the power-transferring unit 30 according to an embodiment of the present invention.

If the transformer of the power transferring unit 30 is assumed to be ideal, then the input power P1 of the primary side can be transferred to the secondary side without loss. Therefore, the power P2 at the secondary side becomes the input power P1 , i.e., P1 = P2 However, when considering the coupling coefficient k and turns ratio n, the secondary side can be expressed, if coil resistance is neglected, as follows:
V2 = k x V1 / n



                                                                                 I2 = k x n x I1



                                                                                 P2 = V2 x I2     or

                                                                                 P2 = k2 x P1

On the other hand, when internal resistance Rg of the power supply exists and the secondary current I2 is not zero, as a load having resistance Ro is connected to the secondary side, reflective impedance Z 21 is coupled to the primary side. Here, the reflective impedance Z21 can be expressed as:
Z21 = -(sM)2 / Z22   or 

                                                                                 Z21 = R21 + jX21 ohms.



Fig.6A and Fig.6B are equivalent circuit diagrams of the primary and secondary sides of a transformer, respectively, when the resonant power amplified by the serial resonant circuit of Fig.4A is transferred to the secondary side of the transformer, based on the transformer principle, as shown in Fig.5.

As shown in Fig.6B, in the equivalent circuit diagram of the secondary side of the transformer, I1 is the primary current and Z12 is the mutual inductance.

As shown in Fig.6A, when the power supply circuit at the primary side is configured to be a serial resonant circuit and a load is connected to the secondary side circuit, reflective impedance Z21 appears in the resonant circuit at the primary side. When the circuit is designed so that the reflective impedance Z21 hardly affects the resonant circuit at the primary side, the resonant circuit continues its resonance. Then, the power amplified by such resonance is transferred to the secondary side, based on the transformer principle, so that amplified power can be fed to the load.

The following is a detailed description of exemplary experiments to prove the above-described embodiments of the present invention.



Fig.7 is a view illustrating a transformer used in a practical experiment for an embodiment of the present invention. The transformer is designed in such a way that coils are wound around a ferrite core to form primary and secondary sides whose inductances are each 348 mH and whose turns ratio is n:1. Also, the transformer is operated in serial resonance mode. Here, the DC resistance of the coil is 2.8 ohms and the coupling coefficient k is 0.742.

For this experiment, a Tektronix CFG 280 signal generator, whose internal impedance is 50 ohms, was used as an AC power source and a serial resonance frequency of 304 KHz was used. A Tektronix TDS 220 oscilloscope was used to measure the voltages.



Fig.8 is an equivalent circuit diagram of an electric power amplification/transfer experimental circuit according to an embodiment of the present invention.



Fig.9A and Fig.9B are equivalent circuit diagrams of the primary and secondary sides in the equivalent circuit of Fig.8.

At the primary side of the equivalent circuit shown in Fig.9A, the equivalent resistance RT can be expressed as RT = Rg + R1 + R21 Here, when a load (Ro) is connected to the circuit, the quality factor Qs can be expressed as Qs = XL1 / RT Thus, the smaller the reflective impedance R21, the greater the power amplification.

Therefore, if the reflective impedance Z21 is minimised at the primary side to maintain resonance when the circuit is designed, the amplified resonant power is transferred to the secondary side without loss, based on the transformer principle, such that the voltage and current corresponding to the transferred power can appear at the secondary side. Accordingly, the voltage at the primary side, when amplified by serial resonance, becomes Qs x Vg, and the voltage V2 at the secondary side is expressed as V2 = (Q2 / n) x k x Vg. When the coupling coefficient k is 1 and the turns ratio n is 1, the secondary voltage V2 is amplified to become Q times the source power Vg and then applied to the load connected to the secondary side.

Since the secondary current I2 is k x n x I1 , when n = 1 and k = 1, then I2 = I1. Here, I1 is the resonant current of the primary side and is transferred to the secondary side without loss.

Therefore, the power P2 transferred to the secondary side is expressed as the following equation:
P2 = V2 x I2   or

                                                                                   P2 = (Qs / n) x k x Vg x k x n x I1   or

                                                                                   P2 = Qs x k2 x Vg x I1   or

                                                                                   P2 = Qs x k2 x P1

The equation above shows that when resonance is achieved and k = 1, then the calculation for the output power P2 , shows that Qs times the input power is transferred to the secondary side. The load does not draw electric power from the power supply but instead, draws it's power from the resonant power amplified by the power amplifier, which is it's main power supply. Thus, the power supply functions as a trigger (an auxiliary circuit) allowing this resonance to be maintained.

In the experimental circuits shown in Fig.9A and Fig.9B, when the load resistance Ro is assumed to be 170K ohms, the reflective impedance Z21 is expressed as follows:
Z21 = -(sM)2 / Z22    or

                                                                                   Z21 = 1.43 - j5.6 x 10-3 ohms  or 

                                                                                   Z21 = R21 + jX21 ohms

Assuming that:

         Rg = 50 ohms, 

         Ro = 170K ohms, 

         XL1 = 665 ohms, 

         XL2 = 665 ohms, 

         k = 0.742, and 

         n = 1.

As described in the equation, since the reflective resistance R21 of 1.43 ohms, is substantially smaller than the internal resistance Rg which is 50 ohms, it hardly affects Qs the overall performance factor of circuit. Also, since the reflective capacitive reactance X21, which is 5.6 x 10-3 ohms, is substantially smaller than the inductive reactance of 665 ohms at the primary side, this resonance can be maintained continuously.

The following table, "Table 1", shows experimental measured data showing the available output power provided to a load (Ro) using a resonant circuit of the power supply whose internal resistance Rg is 50 ohms and whose voltage is 1 volt. Here, the data were obtained when the coupling coefficient k was 0.742. However, when the coupling coefficient k is 1, then, V2 = V1 and the power provided to the load is as described in Table 1. Here, XL2 is neglected, because Ro is very much greater than XL2 when the power provided to the load is calculated.


Where: Vg = 1 volt, k = 0.742, and n = 1.

In Table 1, since the source voltage Vg is 1 volt, the value of the quality factor of the circuit Qs is equal to the magnitude of the voltage V1 applied to the inductor (L1). Therefore, the voltage V2, transferred to the secondary side, is k x V1.

Also, when I2 = 0, the quality factor Q2 at the primary side is expressed as:
Qs = XL1 / (Rg + R1)  or 

                                                                            Qs = 665 ohms / 52.8 ohms and so

                                                                            Qs = 12.59 ohms. 

Provided that Rg the internal resistance of the power supply is 50 ohms, and R1 the DC resistance of the primary coil is 2.8 ohms.

Since the case where load resistance Ro is 1M ohms is similar to that where I2 = 0, Qs must be 12.59 like the theoretical value but, as described in Table 1, the experimental value is measured as 8.97. Such a result is estimated because the value of the factor Qs is reduced by resistance caused by the high frequency of the coil as well as the DC resistance of the coil.

Therefore, based on such a result, effective resistance Reff of the primary circuit can be calculated as:
Reff = XL1 / Qs  that is,

                                                                             Reff = 667 / 8.97 = 74.1 ohms. 

Thus, the experiment circuit is estimated as being operated in a state where the effective resistance Reff is 74.1 ohms and the internal resistance Rg of the power source is 50 ohms. Table 1 shows that the quality factor Qs according to change of load resistance Ro is XL1 / (Reff + R21 ), i.e., Qs = XL1 / (Reff + R21).

Table 1 shows that, when the load resistance Ro is 1.2K ohms, the reflective resistance R21 is 202.89 ohms and voltage amplification is approximately 2.4 times. Therefore, if a circuit designed to have such characteristics, is operated in this way, then, when the load resistance Ro is increased, the reflective resistance R21 and the reflective impedance Z21 are decreased but the quality factor Qs is increased.



The following Table 2 describes value calculated by an equation when the coupling coefficient k set to that of the resonant equivalent circuit of Fig.8.


Where: Vg = 1 volt, k = 1, and n = 1.

In Table 2, since the reflective resistance R21 is changed according to a change in the load resistance Ro when k = 1, when each Ro in Table 1 and Table 2 is 1.2K ohms or 870 ohms, the available power provided to the load (Ro) is decreased more than it is in the case of k = 0.742. Such a result is because the parameters used for the reflective impedance Z21, such as the coupling coefficient k, the load resistance Ro, the turns ratio n, and the reactance XL1, are associated with the design of a circuit for the transfer of resonant power.

The following Table 3 shows comparisons of magnitude of available power provided to a load (Ro) when the load (Ro) is connected directly to the source voltage, with that of available power provided to a load (Ro) when the load is connected to an experimental circuit for power amplification with a 1-volt voltage source, as shown in Fig.8.



Fig.10 is a circuit diagram where a power supply is directly connected to a load to supply its power to the load. Here, since the value of Ro is very much greater than the value of Rg, the internal resistance Rg of the power supply is neglected.



As described in Table 1, in the circuit where Qs is maintained at 6.56 in serial resonance, the available power provided to the load having load resistance Ro of 10K ohms, as described in Table 3, is 24.2 times the power in the case of k = 0.742 and 31.58 times the power in the case of k = 1 than that of the case where the load is directly connected to the power supply. This means that the load is provided with amplified power, Qs2 times greater than that of the conventional power providing method.

The following is a detailed description of a circuit for amplifying and supplying source power using parallel resonance, based on the experiment results.

Home electric power is provided in such a way that 6,600 volts is transmitted to a transformer nearest to a home and a transformer then steps the voltage down to a single phase 220-volts to supply it to the home, so that home appliances can use it.



Fig.11 is an equivalent circuit diagram for transferring electric power to loads in a home. The circuit is designed in such a way that load resistance Ro is 1 ohm and a factor Qp of a desired circuit is 8.58. Here, the internal resistance of the power supply is neglected.

Here, the primary voltage of the transformer is 6,600 volts and the secondary voltage is 220 volts. In addition, when the coupling coefficient k of the transformer is assumed to be 1, the turns ratio n is 30 (that is, V1 / V2 or 6,600 / 220). Also, the resistance of a load in the home is assumed to be 1 ohm.

Here, in order to apply 220 volts to the load, the reactance at the secondary side of transformer shown in Fig.11 must be chosen in such a way to be 1% of the load resistance, i.e., 0.0105 ohms. Since the reactance X1 at the primary side and the reactance X2 at the secondary side are each proportional to the square of the turns ratio, XL1 = n2 x XL2 which is 302 x (0.0105) or 9.44 ohms. Here, since the reflective impedance Z21 is -(sM)2 / Z22 or 0.1 - j0.01 ohms, and so it hardly affects the circuit at the primary side.



Therefore, a parallel resonance circuit of the primary side, for amplifying power, is applied to the power amplification circuit using parallel resonance, as shown in Fig.12, thereby transferring the amplified resonant power to the secondary side.

Here, when the resistance RL1 of the coil at the primary side is assumed to be 1 ohm, the performance factor of the circuit Qp is 8.58 (that is, XL1 / Reff which is 9.44 ohms / 1.1 ohms). Provided that Reff =RL1 + R21. Also, the resistance R1 in the parallel resonance is 81 ohms (Reff x Q2 or 1.1 ohms x (8.58)2). Here, the internal resistance of the power supply is neglected.



Fig.13 is an equivalent circuit diagram of a current source, which is modified from the circuit of Fig.12 as the voltage source is replaced with the current source.

As shown in Fig.13, the resonant current Io is 81.5 amps (as V1 / R1 is 6,600 volts / 81 ohms). The primary reactance X1 allows a circulating current of 699 amps, which corresponds to Io (81.5 amps) times Qp , to be flowing in it. The 6,600 volts is applied to both leads of the primary reactance, therefore, under these conditions, the parallel resonant power P1R is 4,613.4 kilowatts (V1 x Qp x Io which is 6,600 volts x 699 amps).

However, in the equivalent circuit of Fig.11, when the coil resistance RL1 is neglected, the current I1 flowing in the primary reactance XL1 is 699 amps (V1 / XL1 = 6,600 volts / 9.44 ohms, therefore, the power P1 applied to the primary reactance XL1 is 4,613.4 kilowatts (as V1 x I1 = 6,600 volts x 699 amps).

Therefore, the parallel resonant power P1R of 4,613.4 kilowatts in parallel resonance is identical, in magnitude, to the power P1 of 4,613.4 kilowatts, not in resonance, and transferred to the load through the transformer. From the point of view of the power supply, it must produce power P1 of 4,613.4 kilowatts, not in resonance. However, since the source power Pg in parallel resonance, as shown in the equivalent circuit of Fig.13, is 0.54 kilowatts (as V1 x Io is 6,600 volts x 0.0815 amps), the power supply in resonance may produce P1 times 1/Qs. Therefore, from the point of view of the electric generator, its output power seems to be increased. On the other hand, such an effect can be obtained in an identical fashion from a circuit which is in serial resonance.

The present invention can save more of a load's consumption power than the conventional method can.

The following describes theoretical proposals for how the present invention can be applied to home appliances to save consumption power, based on the experiment results.

A typical home appliance steps the voltage down from 220 volts to a required voltage using a transformer and then leaves the stepped-down voltage as AC or converts it to DC to provide the necessary power to loads, for example, an apparatus might have requirement for power supplied at 6 volts and a current of 0.3 amps.

Here, the equivalent resistance Ro of the load is 20 ohms (V2 / I2 = 6 volts / 0.3 amps). In order to apply 99% of the voltage to the load (Ro), XL2 is chosen to be 0.2 ohms. Here, the turns ratio n is 36.7 (V1 /V2 = 220 volts / 6 volts), and the primary reactance XL1 is 269 ohms (n2 x XL2 = 36.72 x 0.2 ohms).

Also, when the reflective impedance Z21 and the resistance RL1 of the primary coil (L1) are chosen so that Z21 = -(sM)2 / Z22 = 2.7 - j0.027 ohms and RL1 = 40 ohms, the reflective impedance Z21 hardly affects the primary circuit. Such an equivalent circuit of the transformer is illustrated in Fig.14, in which the internal resistance of the power supply is neglected.



In Fig.14, in order to apply 6 volts to the load (Ro) of 20 ohms, the primary current I1 needs approximately 818 milliamps (i.e., I1 = V1 / XL1 = 220 volts / 269 ohms which is about 818 milliamps), assuming that the resistance RL1 of the primary coil is neglected.

Therefore, the power actually consumed by the load (Ro) is determined by the primary voltage, 220 volts, and the current, 818 milliamps, of the primary side of the transformer shown in Fig.14.



Fig.15 shows an equivalent circuit diagram modified from the circuit of Fig.14 as the voltage source is replaced with a current source. The circuit of Fig.15 is configured to be operated in parallel resonance.

In Fig.15, the internal resistance of the power supply is neglected. In the equivalent circuit using parallel resonance, the performance factor Qp is obtained as Qp = XL1 / (RL1 + R21) = 269 ohms / (40 + 27) ohms which is about 6.3. As well, the primary circuit resistance R1 is obtained as R1 = (RL1 + R21) x Qp2 which is 42.7 x 6.3 which is about 1,694.7 ohms.

Therefore, the primary current I1 is identical to the resonant current Io , and is given by Io = V1 / R1 or 220 volts / 1,694.7 ohms which is about 129.8 milliamps. Thus, the current Iq, flowing in the primary reactance XL1, is calculated as Iq =Qp x Io which is 6.3 x 129.8 milliamps or about 818 milliamps.

So, under the conditions where the coupling coefficient k is 1 and the turns ratio n is 36.7, the voltage V2 and current I2 , obtained as V2 = V1 / n or 220 volts / 36.7 which is about 6 volts, and I2 = n x IQ or 36.7 x 818 milliamps which is about 30 amps, respectively, are transferred to the load at the secondary side of the transformer. Thus, the load can be operated by the voltage V2 and current I2 , used as the regular voltage and current of the load.

However, since the consumption power of the load is caused by the power induced at the primary side of the transformer, the load actually consumes power caused by voltage and current used at the primary side. Therefore, when the resonance shown in the equivalent circuit of Fig.14 is not used, the primary current I1 is approximately 818 milliamps and the current Io , flowing in the primary side in parallel resonance shown in Fig.15, is approximately 129.8 milliamps. Since the circuit inputs the same 220 volts, it can reduce the power, provided to the load when in parallel resonance, by a factor of approximately 6.3 times than would otherwise be provided to the load when operating in a mode which is not in resonance. That is, the circuit can reduce the power consumption when operating in parallel resonance by Qp times, compared to the non-resonance mode of operation.


INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY
As described above, the circuit according to the present invention can transfer amplified power to a load, compared to the conventional circuit where the electric power is simply transferred to the load using an electric generator and a transformer. To this end, the circuit of the present invention is configured in such a way that: resonance (serial or parallel resonance) is formed at the side of the power supply; and the transformer circuit, used for transferring power to the load, is designed so that its reflective impedance can be set with a value to maintain the resonance. Therefore, the amplified resonant power is transferred to the load. That is, the circuit according to the present invention does not transfer the power, produced by an electric generator as a main power source, to the load, but instead, transfers amplified resonant power to the load.

In the circuit according to the present invention, the power supply (an electric generator, etc.) is regarded as an auxiliary circuit to the production of resonant power. Power to be transferred to a load is amplified by a parallel or serial resonant circuit, thereby providing amplified resonant power to the load, compared to the conventional circuit where power produced by an electric generator is fed directly to the load. Therefore, the circuit of the present invention can appear to reduce the consumption power required to operate the load.

The present invention is operated to transfer resonant power to a load through a transformer, and may be set up as either a serial or parallel resonant circuit. Therefore, the present invention can be usefully applied to industrial power applications while satisfying energy conservation laws.

Although the preferred embodiments of the present invention have been disclosed for illustrative purposes, those skilled in the art will appreciate that various modifications, additions and substitutions are possible, without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention as disclosed in the accompanying claims.

Claims
  1. A circuit for transferring amplified resonant power to a load, comprising: a power supply for producing and supplying voltage or current; a power amplifier for generating amplified resonant power using the voltage or current; and a power transferring unit for transferring the amplified resonant power to the load using a transformer.
  2. The circuit according to claim 1, wherein the power supply is one of AC voltage source, AC current source, DC voltage source, and DC current source.
  3. The circuit according to claim 1, wherein the power amplifier includes: a primary inductor of the transformer; and a capacitor connected to the primary inductor in serial or in parallel, wherein the amplified resonant power is stored in the primary inductor.
  4. The circuit according to claim 1, wherein reflective impedance at the primary side of the transformer has a relatively small value such that the power amplifier can maintain resonance, wherein reflective resistance (R21)of the reflective impedance (Z2) is less than equivalent inductive reactance (XL1) of the primary side of the transformer transferring the resonant power, and reflective reactance (X21) is less that 0.5 of the equivalent inductive reactance (XL1) of the primary side of the transformer.
  5. The circuit according to claim 1, wherein the circuit amplifies power by using parallel resonance, and transfers the amplified resonant power to the load, such that consumption power of the load can be reduced.


Tariel Kapaladze (or perhaps, Tariel Kapanadze), like Don Smith, appears to have based his work on that of Nikola Tesla. There has been a video on the web, of one of his devices in operation, but it appears that the video has been removed. The video commentary was not in English and so the information gathered from it is not as complete as it might be. However, in spite of that, a number of useful things can be learned from it.



The video shows a demonstration being staged in a back garden, I believe, in Turkey. Strong sunshine was casting dense shadows which made video detail less than perfect. Essentially, Tariel demonstrated one of his builds of a Tesla-style free-energy device, powering both itself and a row of five light bulbs.

One of the most encouraging things about this video is that the construction and operation was of the most basic kind, with not the slightest suggestion of expensive laboratory work or anything high-precision. This is most definitely a backyard construction within the scope of any knowledgeable person.

Electrical connections were made by twisting bare wires together:



and where necessary, tightening the twist with a pair of pliers:



This shows clearly that a high-power and very useful free-energy device can be made with the most simple of construction methods - no expensive connectors here, just a zero-cost twisted connection.



The device being displayed is a Tesla Coil powered, earth-connected system of the type already described. You will notice that the thick primary winding is not placed at one end of the central secondary winding but is much closer to the centre of the coil. Remember that Don Smith states that if the primary coil is placed centrally, then the amount of current which the coil can deliver is very large, in spite of the fact that most people think that a Tesla Coil can only produce trivial currents. Notice also that this Tesla Coil appears to be mounted on a cheap kitchen-roll holder. I have seen it said that Tariel makes a new device for each demonstration and takes it apart afterwards, so if that is correct, then it is likely that there is no great effort or expense involved in making one of these systems.



The main operational components are shown here, placed on one small table. There is a lead-acid battery (which is removed later in the demonstration), what appears to be an inverter to produce mains AC voltage from the battery, a high-voltage step-up system housed in a green box for safety reasons, a Tesla Coil, a spark gap mounted on the box and a fan-cooled component, probably a solid-state oscillator system driving the Tesla Coil. Not seen in this picture, is an item contained in a small box which might well be a high-voltage capacitor.

Two earth connections are organised. The first one is an old car radiator buried in the ground:



and the second is a bare wire wrapped around a garden tap's metal pipe and twisted tight as shown above. It is distinctly possible that the circuit is based on this circuit of Tesla's:



Perhaps, the battery powers the inverter which produces mains voltage, which is then stepped up to a high voltage level by the enclosed electronics. This then drives the Tesla Coil, producing both very high voltage and current with the capacitor storing the energy as a reservoir. The spark gap then pulses this energy, driving the primary winding of the isolation transformer which produces a lower voltage at substantial current (depending on the current-handling capacity of the transformer itself) powering the load, which in this case, is a row of light bulbs.

It is distinctly possible that the Tesla Coil is mounted inside the green box and the coils seen on the outside of the box are the isolation transformer, hand-wound with heavy-duty wire. The spark gap is mounted on a non-conducting bracket attached to the side of the box and is of very simple construction with a copper rod threaded into a vertical copper post and a screwdriver slot cut in it to allow exact adjustment of the width of the spark gap:



The load is a row of five light bulbs hung from a broom placed across the backs of two chairs:



As you can see, this is not exactly high-tech, high-cost construction here, with all of the materials being used for other things afterwards.

Initially, the battery is used to power the inverter and it is demonstrated that the current being drawn from the inverter is substantially less than the power entering the load. In conventional terms, this appears impossible, which is an indication that the conventional terms are out of date and need to be updated to include the observed facts from demonstrations such as this.

As the system is putting out a good deal more power than is required to drive it, might it not be possible to use part of the output power to provide the input power. This is often called "closing the loop" and it is demonstrated in this video as the next step.

First, the circuit is altered so that the input power connection to the inverter is taken from the output. Then the circuit is powered up using the battery as before. The battery is then disconnected and removed altogether, and the people helping with the demonstration pick up all of the active items and hold them up in the air so as to show that there are no hidden wires providing the extra power from some hidden source. The items on the table are not part of the circuit:



There is some additional information on Tariel including videos of some of his more powerful, newer designs at this website although it has to be said that there does not appear to be very much on him or his work available at this time.

In December 2009 an anonymous contributor e-mailed to say that Kapanadze returned to the ex-USSR republic of Georgia and that the video soundtrack is in the Georgian language and after the demonstration, the interview is in Russian. He has kindly translated the parts which relate to the device, as follows:

Question: What are you showing us today?
Answer: This is a device which draws energy from the environment. It draws 40 watts as it starts up, but then it can power itself and provide an output of 5 kilowatts. We don't know how much energy can be drawn from the environment, but in an earlier test, we drew 200 kilowatts of power.

Question: Is it possible to solve the energy problems of Georgia?
Answer: We consider that they have already been solved.

Question: Please tell us in simple terms, how your device works.
Answer: (1) Power is drawn from the battery to get the device running
(2) If we want, we can use part of the output power to drive a charger and charge the battery
(3) When the device is running, we can remove the battery and it then operates self-powered. This particular unit can deliver 5 kilowatts of power which is enough for a family. We can easily make a version which supplies 10 kilowatts. We don't know what the practical power limit is for a unit like this. With this particular device we have here, we do not draw more than 5 kilowatts as we don't want to burn out the components which we used in this build.

Question: Does your invention pick up current from mains wires?
Answer: The mains has nothing to do with this device. The energy produced comes directly from the environment.

Question: What do you call your device and do you dedicate it to anyone?
Answer: I would not dream of claiming this device to be my invention, I just found something which works. This is an invention of Nikola Tesla and all the credit is his. Tesla has done so much for mankind but today he is just forgotten. This device is his invention, his work.

Question: Why are you so sure that this is a design of Nikola Tesla's?
Answer: Because I worked from his invention - his design. I discovered how to get automatic resonance between the primary and secondary windings. The most important thing is to achieve resonance. Melnichenko came close to solving this problem. The government of Georgia refuses to take this invention seriously.

Question: You said that resonance must be maintained. Which parts resonate?
Answer: Here (pointing to the green box) and here (pointing to the Tesla Coil mounted on the top of the green box). The resonator is inside the green box and at present, it is secret until patented.

Question: How much would one of these units cost?
Answer: When mass produced, it would cost between 300 and 400 US dollars for a unit which has an output of 5 or 6 kilowatts.

Question:How much did it cost you to build this demonstration device?
Answer: About eight thousand (currency not specified, but the previous question was US dollars). Parts had to be got in from twenty different places.

Question: Is this your house?
Answer: No, I rent this place because we have sold all that we have to make these devices. And, having done it, the government and many scientists say "We are not interested because a device like that is impossible and can't possibly exist!". I have not been allowed to make a presentation to them, but people who understand the Tesla Coil understand how this device works.

Kapanadze is an architect by profession and has not had any training in either physics or Electrical Engineering. The information on which this design was based was downloaded free from the internet.

One of the most important aspects of this video is the confirmation it gives for the work of Tesla and of Don Smith, in that it shows clearly, yet again, that large amounts of energy can be drawn from the local environment, without the need to burn a fuel. Another video can be seen here.

As we enter the year 2011, people frequently ask for construction drawings or alternatively, outlets where they can buy one of his devices. Unfortunately, Tariel has been given the usual run-around by the opposition. I am informed that in the last nine years, he has been involved with a whole series of people who promised to finance the manufacture of his designs but who then failed to come up with the agreed finance. The last of these people who happen to be based in Switzerland, managed to persuade Tariel to sign a Non-Disclosure Agreement and then they just shelved his design in spite of their agreement. Tariel does not have sufficient funds to go to Switzerland and undertake a court case to force them to honour the agreement. So, being blocked from his own designs, Tariel has decided to develop a different free-energy system and publish it so that others can replicate it. He estimates that it will take him about a year to do that.

In the mean time, there have been several successful replications shown on J L Naudin’s web site, where contributers have reported their work:http://jnaudin.free.fr/kapagen/replications.htm and this is most definitely worth a visit and careful consideration.


Meguer Kalfaian.   There is a patent application which has some very interesting ideas and claims. It has been around for a long time but it has not been noticed until recently. Personally, I get the impression that it is more a concept rather than a solidly based prototype-proven device, but that is only my impression and you need to make up your own mind on the matter. This is the patent information:


Patent Application GB 2130431A 31st May 1984 Inventor: Meguer Kalfaian Method and means for producing perpetual motion with high power
ABSTRACT
The perpetual static energies, as provided by the electron (self spin) and the permanent magnet (push and pull) are combined to form a dynamic function. Electrons emitted from a heated coil F are trapped permanently within the central magnetic field of a cylindrical magnet M5. A second magnet M6, in opposite polarity to the poles of the electrons causes polar tilt, and precession. This precession radiates a powerful electromagnetic field to a coil L placed between the cylindrical magnet and a vacuum chamber C - wound in a direction perpendicular to the polar axes of the electrons. Alternatively, the electromagnetic radiation is emitted as coherent light. The original source of electrons is shut off after entrapment.


SPECIFICATION
Method and means for producing perpetual motion with high power. This invention relates to methods and means for producing perpetual motion. An object of the invention is, therefore, to produce useful perpetual motion for utility purposes.


BRIEF EMBODIMENT OF THE INVENTION
The electron has acquired self spin from the very beginning of its birth during the time of creation of matter, and represents a perpetual energy. But self spin alone, without polar motion is not functional, and therefore, useful energy cannot be derived from it. Similarly, the permanent magnet represents a source of perpetual energy, but since its poles are stationary, useful energy cannot be derived from it.

However, the characteristics of these two types of static energies differ one from the other, and therefore the two types of energies can be combined in such a manner that, the combined output can be converted into perpetual polar motion.

In one exemplary mode, a cylindrical vacuum chamber having a filament and a cathode inside, is enclosed within the central magnetic field of a cylindrical permanent magnet, the magnetisation of which can be in a direction either along the longitudinal axis, or from the centre to the circumferential outer surface of the cylinder. When current is passed through the filament, the electrons emitted from the cathode are compressed into a beam at the centre of the cylindrical chamber by the magnetic field of the cylindrical magnet. Thus, when the current through the filament is shut off, the electrons in the beam remain permanently trapped inside the magnetic field.

In such an arrangement, the poles of the electrons are aligned uniformly. When a second permanent magnet is held against the beam in repelling polarity, the poles of the electrons are pushed and tilted from their normal longitudinal polar axes. In such tilted orientations, the electrons now start wobbling (precessing) in gyroscopic motions, just like a spinning top when it is tilted to one side. The frequency of this wobbling (precessional resonance) depends upon the field strengths of the two magnets, similar to the resonance of the violin string relative to its tensional stretch. The polar movements of the electrons radiate an electromagnetic field, which can be collected by a coil and then converted into any desired type of energy. Because of the uniformly aligned electrons, the output field is coherent, and the output power is high.

Observed examples upon which the invention is based: The apparatus can best be described by examples of a spinning top in wobbling motion. Thus, referring to the illustration ofFig.1, assume that the spinning top T is made of magnetic material, as indicated by their pole signs (S and N). Even though the top is magnetic, the spin motion does not radiate any type of field, which can be received and converted into a useful type of energy. This is due to the known fact that, radiation is created only when the poles of the magnet are in motion, and in this case, the poles are stationary.



When a magnet M1 is held from a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal polar axis of the top, as shown in Fig.2, the polar axis of the top will be tilted as shown, and keep on spinning in that tilted direction. When the magnet M1 is removed, however, the top will try to regain its original vertical posture, but in doing so, it will wobble in gyroscopic motion, such as shown in Fig.3. The faster the top spins, then the faster the wobbling motion will be.



The reason that the top tilts angularly, but does not wobble when the magnet M1 is held from horizontal direction, is that, the one-sided pull prevents the top from moving away from the magnetic field for free circular wobble. Instead of holding the magnet M1 from the side of the top, we may also hold the magnet from a direction above the top, as shown inFig.4. In this case, however, the polar signs between the magnet and the top are oriented in like signs, so that instead of pulling action, there is pushing action between the magnet and the top - causing angular tilt of the top, such as shown in Fig.4. The pushing action of the magnetic field from above the top is now equalised within a circular area, so that the top finds freedom to wobble in gyroscopic rotation.

The important point in the above given explanation is that, the top tries to gain its original vertical position, but it is prevented from doing so by the steady downward push from the static magnetic field of magnet M2. So, as long as the top is spinning, it will wobble in a steady state. Since there is now, polar motion in the wobbling motion of the top, this wobbling motion can easily be converted into useful energy. To make this conversion into perpetual energy, however, the top must be spinning perpetually. Nature has already provided a perpetually spinning magnetic top, which is called, "the electron" - guaranteed to spin forever, at a rate of 1.5 x 1023 (one hundred fifty thousand billion billion revolutions per second).

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS


Fig.1 illustrates a magnetic spinning top, used to describe the basic principles of the invention.



Fig.2 illustrates a controlled top for describing the basic principles of the invention.



Fig.3 and Fig.4 illustrate spinning tops in wobbling states for describing the basic principles of the invention.



Fig.5 shows how an electron can be driven into a wobbling state under the control of permanent magnets.



Fig.6 is a practical arrangement for obtaining perpetual motion.



Fig.7 shows a natural atomic arrangement for obtaining precessional resonance.



Fig.8 shows a different type of electron trapping permanent magnet, to that used in Fig.6.



Fig.9 is a modification of Fig.6; and



Fig.10 is a modification of the electron trapping magnets, used in Fig.6BEST MODE OF CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
Referring to the exemplary illustration of Fig.4, the spinning top T is pivoted to the base B by gravity.



In the case of the electron, however, it must be held tightly between some magnetic forces. So, referring to the illustration of Fig.5, assume that an electron e is placed in the centre of a cylindrical magnet M4. The direction of



magnetisation of the magnet M4, and the polar orientation of the electron e are marked in the drawing. In this case, when a permanent magnet M3 is placed at the open end of the cylindrical magnet M4, the electron e will precess, in a manner, as described by way of the spinning top. The difficulty in this arrangement is that, electrons cannot be separated in open air, and a vacuum chamber is required, as in the following:



Fig.6 shows a vacuum chamber C, which contains a cylindrically wound filament F, connected to the battery B1 by way of the switch S1. Thus, when the switch S1 is turned ON, the filament F is lighted, and it releases electrons. External to the vacuum chamber C is mounted a cylindrical permanent magnet M5, which compresses the emitted electrons into a beam at the centre of the chamber.

When the beam is formed, the switch is turned OFF, so that the beam of electrons is permanently trapped at the centre of the chamber.

The permanent trapping of the electrons in the chamber C represents a permanent storage of static energy. Thus, when a permanent magnet M6 is placed to tilt the polar orientations of the uniformly poled electrons in the beam, they start precessing perpetually at a resonant frequency, as determined by the field strengths of the magnets M5 and M6.

The precessing electrons in the beam will radiate quadrature phased electromagnetic field in a direction perpendicular to the polar axes of the electrons.

Thus, a coil L may be placed between the magnet M5 and the vacuum chamber C, to receive the radiated field from the beam. The output may then be utilised in different modes for practical purposes, for example, rectified for DC power use.

The electron beam-forming cylindrical magnet M5, which may also be called a focusing magnet, is shown to be bipolar along the longitudinal axis. The direction of magnetisation, however, may be from the central opening to the outer periphery of the magnet, as shown by the magnet M7, in Fig.8 but the precessing magnet M6 will be needed in either case.



In the arrangement of Fig.6, I have included a current control grid G. While it is not essential for operation of the arrangement shown, it may be connected to a high negative potential B2 by the switch S2 just before switching the S1 in OFF position, so that during the cooling period of the filament, there will occur no escape of any electrons from the beam to the cathode. Also, the grid G may be switched ON during the heating period of the cathode, so that electrons are not forcibly released from the cathode during the heating period, and thereby causing no damage to the cathode, or filament.

Biological precessional resonance
Electron precessional resonance occurs in living tissue matter, as observed in laboratory tests. This is called ESR (Electron Spin Resonance) or PMR (Paramagnetic Resonance). In tissue matter, however, the precessing electron is entrapped between two electrons, as shown in Fig.7, and the polar orientations are indicated by the polar signs and shadings, for clarity of drawing.



Simulation
The arrangement of Fig.7 may be simulated artificially in a manner as shown in Fig.9, wherein, the electron trapping magnet is a pair of parallel spaced magnets M8. In actual practice, however, the structure of this pair of magnets M8 can be modified. For example, a second pair of magnets M8 may be disposed between the two pairs, so that the directions of the transverse fields between the two pairs cross mutually perpendicular at the central longitudinal axis of the vacuum chamber. The inner field radiating surfaces of these two pairs of magnets may be shaped circular, and the two pairs may be assembled, either by physical contact to each other, or separated from each other.

Modifications
Referring to the arrangements of Fig.6, Fig.9 and Fig.10, when the electron is in precessional gyroscopic motion, the radiated field in a direction parallel to the polar axis of the electron, is a single phased corkscrew waveform, which when precessed at light frequency, the radiation produces the effect of light.



Whereas, the field in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the electron produces a quadrature phased electromagnetic radiation. Thus, instead of utilising the output of electron precession for energy purposes, it may be utilised for field radiation of either light or electromagnetic waves, such as indicated by the arrows in Fig.9. In this case, the output will be coherent field radiation.

In reference to the arrangement of Fig.6, the electron emission is shown to occur within the central magnetic field of the focusing magnet M5. It may be practically desired, however, that these electrons are injected into the central field of the cylindrical magnet from a gun assembly, as shown in an exemplary arrangement of Fig.10. In this case, the vacuum chamber C is flanged at the right hand side, for mounting an electron emitting cathode 1 (the filament not being shown), and a curved electron-accelerating gun 2. The central part of this flange is recessed for convenience of mounting an electron-tilting magnet (as shown), as close as possible to the electron beam. In operation, when current is passed through the filament, and a positive voltage is applied (not shown) to the gun 2, the emitted electrons from the cathode are accelerated and injected into the central field of the magnet 11. Assuming that the open end of the gun 2 overlaps slightly the open end of the cylindrical central field of the magnet M1, and the positive accelerating voltage applied to the gun 2 is very low, the accelerated electrons will enter the central field of the magnet M1, and travel to the other end of the field. Due to the low speed acceleration of the electrons, however, they cannot spill out of the field, and become permanently entrapped therein.

In regard to the direction in which the coil L1 is positioned, its winding should be in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the beam to which the polar axes of the electrons are aligned uniformly in parallel. In one practical mode, the coil L1 may be wound in the shape of a surface winding around a tubular form fitted over the cylindrical vacuum chamber.

In regard to the operability of the apparatus as disclosed herein, the illustration in Fig.7 shows that the field output in a direction parallel to the polar axis of the electron is singular phased, and it produces the effect of light when the precessional frequency is at a light frequency. Whereas, the output in a direction perpendicular to the polar axis of the electron is quadrature phased, which is manifested in practiced electromagnetic field transmission.

In regard to experimental references, an article entitled "Magnetic Resonance at high Pressure" in the "Scientific American" by George B. Benedek, page 105 illustrates a precessing nucleus, and indicates the direction of the electromagnetic field radiation by the precessing nucleus. The same technique is also used in the medical apparatus "Nuclear magnetic resonance" now used in numerous hospitals for imaging ailing tissues (see "High Technology" Nov. Dec. 1982. Refer also to the technique of detecting Electron Spin Resonance, in which electrons (called "free radicals") are precessed by the application of external magnetic field to the tissue matter. In all of these practices, the electromagnetic field detecting coils are directed perpendicular to the polar axes of the precessing electrons or the nuclei.

In regard to the production of light by a precessing electron, in a direction parallel to the polar axis of the precessing electron, see an experimental reference entitled "Free electrons make powerful new laser" published in "high Technology" February 1983 page 69.

In regard to the aspect of producing and storing the electrons in a vacuum chamber, it is a known fact by practice that the electrons are entrapped within the central field of a cylindrical permanent magnet, and they will remain entrapped as long as the magnet remains in position.

With regard to the performance of obtaining precessional resonance of the electron, the simple example of a wobbling top is sufficient, as proof of operability.

Having described the preferred embodiments of the invention, and in view of the suggestions of numerous possibilities of modifications, adaptations, adjustments and substitutions of parts, it should be obvious to the skilled in related arts that other possibilities are within the spirit and scope of the present invention.


Stanley Meyer.   Stan, who is famous for his water-splitting and related automotive achievements, actually held about forty patents on a wide range of inventions. Here is one of his patents which circulates magnetic particles in a fluid, and while the fluid does move, none of the other components in the device move and a high level of constructional skills is not called for:

Please note that this is a re-worded excerpt from this Stan Meyer patent. Although it does not state it in the patent, Stan appears to make it understood that this system produces a significant power gain – something with Patent Offices find very difficult to accept.

Patent CA 1,213,671             4th February 1983             Inventor: Stanley A. Meyer


ELECTRICAL PARTICLE GENERATOR

ABSTRACT

An electrical particle generator comprising a non-magnetic pipe in a closed loop having a substantial amount of magnetised particles encapsulated inside it. A magnetic accelerator assembly is positioned on the pipe, which has an inductive primary winding and a low-voltage input to the winding. A secondary winding is positioned on the pipe opposite to the primary winding. Upon voltage being applied to the primary winding, the magnetised particles are passed through the magnetic accelerator assembly with increased velocity. These accelerated particles passing through the pipe, induce an electrical voltage/current potential as they pass through the secondary winding. The increased secondary voltage is utilised in an amplifier arrangement.


BACKGROUND AND PRIOR ART
The prior art teachings expound the fundamental principle tat a magnetic field passing through inductive windings will generate a voltage/current or enhance the voltage across it if the winding is a secondary winding.

It is also taught by the prior art, that a magnetic element in a primary inductive field will be attracted at one end of the coil and repelled at the other end. That is, a moving magnetic element will be accelerated in motion by the attraction and repulsion of the magnetic field of the primary inductive winding.

In the conventional step-up transfer, the voltage across the secondary is a function of the number of turns in the secondary relative to the number of turns in the primary winding. Other factors are the diameter of the wire and whether the core is air or a magnetic material.


SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention utilises the basic principle of the particle accelerator and the principle of inducing a voltage in a secondary winding by passing a magnetic element through it.

The structure comprises a primary voltage inductive winding having a magnetic core, plus a low-voltage input. There is a secondary winding with a greater number of turns than the turns in the primary winding, plus an output for using the voltage induced in that winding.

The primary winding and core are positioned on one side of an endless, closed-loop, non-magnetic pipe. The secondary windings are positioned on the opposite side of the endless pipe. The pipe is filled with discrete magnetic particles, preferably of a gas, and each particle has a magnetic polarised charge placed on it.

Due to their magnetic polarisation charges, the particles will sustain some motion. As the particles approach the accelerator assembly, which is the primary coil, the magnetic field generated by the coil attracts the particles and accelerates them through the coil. As each particles passes through the coil, the repulsion end of the coil boosts the particle on it’s way. This causes each particle to exit from the coil with an increased velocity.

As the magnetic particles pass through the secondary coil winding, they induce a voltage across the ends of that coil. Due to the larger number of turns, this induced voltage is much higher than the voltage across the primary coil.

The main objective of this invention is to provide an electrical generator which is capable of producing a voltage/current of much greater magnitude than has been possible previously. Another objective is to provide a generator which uses magnetic particles and a magnetic accelerator. Another object is to provide a generator which can control the amplitude of the output. Another objective is to provide a generator which can be used with DC, AC, pulsed or other configurations of waveforms. Another objective is to provide a generator which can be used in either a single-phase or a 3-phase electrical system. Another objective is to provide a generator for developing magnetised particles for use in an electrical particle generator. Another objective is to provide an electrical generator which uses readily available components to construct a simple embodiment of this invention.


BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



Fig.1 is a simplified illustration of the principles of the invention, shown partially in cross-section and partially pictorially.



Fig.2 is an electrical schematic illustration of the embodiment shown in Fig.1.



Fig.3 is an illustration similar to Fig.2 but which is adaptable to 3-phase use.



Fig.4 is a first alternative arrangement of a preferred implementation of the invention.



Fig.5 is another alternative arrangement of a preferred embodiment of the invention.



Fig.6 is another alternative arrangement of a preferred embodiment of this invention.



Fig.7 is another alternative arrangement of a preferred embodiment of this invention.



Fig.8 is another alternative arrangement of a preferred embodiment of this invention.



Fig.9 is an alternative arrangement for a magnetic drive particle accelerator assembly.



Fig.10 is an illustration of an alternative method of producing the magnetised particles used in this invention.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION
Fig.1 and Fig.2 show the invention in it’s most simplified schematic form:



It comprises a primary coil magnetic accelerator assembly 10, a closed-loop non-magnetic pipe 30, and a secondary winding 20. The magnetic accelerator assembly is comprised of primary windings 12, a magnetic core 14, and voltage taps 16. The primary windings are positioned around end 32 of the closed-loop pipe 30 which is made from non-magnetic tubing.

At the opposite end 34 of the closed-loop pipe 30, are the secondary windings 20. The end terminals 22 of the secondary winding 20, allow the voltage generated in the winding to be used. Contained inside pipe 30, there is a substantial number of magnetic particles 40 as shown in Fig.2. The particles 40 must be light enough to be freely mobile and so may be particles suspended in a fluid medium such as gas, liquid or light-weight movable solid particles. Of these options, the use of a gas is preferred. If solid particles are used as the transporting medium, then it may be desirable to remove all air from inside the pipe in order to reduce the resistance to the flowing particles. Each of the particles 40 is magnetised and the following description refers to one individual particle and not to the mass of particles as a whole.

The voltage applied to terminals 16 of primary winding 12, is a low voltage, and it’s magnitude may be used as an input signal control. By varying the input voltage, the accelerator will vary the speed of the circulating particles, which will, in turn, vary the magnitude of the voltage/current output of the secondary winding 20. The output 22 of the secondary transformer winding 20, is a high voltage/current output.



It can be appreciated that the system shown in Fig.1 and Fig.2 where there is just one closed loop, provides a single-phase output in the secondary winding 20.   Fig.3 shows a closed-loop arrangement with three parallel non-magnetic tubes 31, 33 and 35, each with it’s own output winding 21, 23 and 25. Each of these three windings are a single-phase output, and as their three pipes share a common input junction and a common output junction, these three output windings provide a balanced 3-phase electrical system.



Fig.4 shows an electrical power generator which operates exactly the same as those shown in Fig.1 and Fig.2. Here, the arrangement is for use in an environment where there is a high moisture content. An insulating coating 45, completely covers pipe 30 as well as all of the electrical windings. Fig.4 also illustrates the fact that increasing the number of turns for any given wire diameter increases the voltage/current output of the device. In this physical configuration, both vertical and horizontal directions are used which allows a large-diameter pipe to be used with a substantial number of turns of heavy-gauge high-current wire.



Fig.5 shows a coil arrangement 49, which uses the entire magnetic flux in the closed-loop tubing 47. This is a co-axial arrangement with the primary winding 43 as a central core.



Fig.6 illustrates a concentric spiral configuration of the tubing 50, with the secondary windings 53 covering it completely.



Fig.7 shows an arrangement where the particle accelerator 10 is wound over the tubing 30 in much the same way as in Fig.1 and Fig.2. However, in this arrangement, the tubing 30is a continuous closed loop arranged in a series-parallel configuration where there are three secondary windings providing three separate outputs while the tubing 30 runs in series through those three windings.



Fig.8 shows a configuration which is the reverse of that shown in Fig.7. Here, there are several pick-up coils wound in series and unlike the earlier configurations, the tubing 80 is not continuous. In this arrangement, there is an input manifold 82, and an output manifold 84, and several separate tubes 60a, 60b, 60c, ….. 60n interconnecting those two manifolds. Each of those separate tubes has it’s own separate secondary coil 70a, 70b, 70c, ….. 70n wound on it.



The magnetic particle accelerator 10, can be different in design to that shown in Fig.1.   Fig.9 shows a mechanical particle accelerator 100. In this arrangement, the magnetic particles 102 are permanently magnetised prior to being encapsulated in the non-magnetic pipe 110. The particles 102 are accelerated by fan blade or pump 104 rotated by mechanical drive assembly 106. The mechanical drive for assembly 106 may be a belt-drive pulley 112, or similar device driven by an electric motor. A sealing bearing 114 keeps the particles 102 inside the pipe 110.

It has been stated that the magnetic particles traversing the secondary coils, generate a voltage/current in them. It must be understood, however, that that the particles are actually traversing the magnetic field of those coils.

Also, the pipe 30 has been described as a non-magnetic pipe. There are certain non-magnetic pipes which would not work with this invention. Pipe 30 must be capable of passing magnetic lines of force.

A significant feature of each of the various embodiments already described, is the generation of the magnetic particles which are encapsulated within the tubing.



Fig.10 shows an apparatus for carrying out the process of vapourising material to produce suitable particles which are then magnetised by being subjected to a magnetic field. The chamber 155 is an evacuated chamber having electrodes, made from magnetisable metal, 160 and 162. A voltage is applied between terminals 150 and 152, and this drives a current through terminals 154 and 156, to spark-gap electrodes 160 and 162, generating an arc which vapourises the tip material of the electrodes, producing particles 180. These particles rise and enter tube 190, passing through a magnetic field generator 175. This gives each particle a magnetic charge and they continue on their way as magnetically-charged particles 185, passing through port 190 to reach the electrical particle generator described above.

In the simplified embodiment shown in Fig.1 and Fig.2, as well as the other preferred embodiments mentioned, it was indicated that a low voltage was applied to the particle accelerator 10. Upon acceleration, a high voltage/current would be induced in the secondary pick-up coil 20. A most significant advantage of the present invention is that the voltage amplification is not related to the shape of the waveform of the input voltage. Specifically, if the input is DC a DC voltage will be output. An AC input will produce an AC output. A pulsed voltage input will produce a pulsed voltage output and an input voltage of any other configuration will produce an output having that same configuration.


Russ Gries   has produced a video presentation and analysis of the above Stan Meyer patent. This is a large download file which takes a considerable time to receive (some hours in my case). The download link is 
1: 
Video 1
2: Video 2
3: Video 3
…….
8: Video 8


And in particular, video 8, where Stan discusses the design and use of the generator. It is easy to get somewhat confused as Stan talks about both the Electrical Particle Generator and it’s use in combination with HHO production as a large-scale power generation source.

The very experienced Alex Petty is joining with Russ in working on replicating Stan’s system and Alex’s web site is www.alexpetty.com. A discussion forum linked to this is here and there is information here at www.overunity.com and high-resolution pictures can also be seen in Russ’ video here. Russ’ own website is here and an additional video of the most recent developmental work being undertaken is here.

There are various important things which are commented on and Russ is to be commended for drawing attention to them. For the moment, please forget about HHO as that is a separate issue. As far as I can see, the patent does not claim that the device is COP>1 but instead that the device is a power transformer which potentially has a greater power output than conventional transformers since there is no Lenz Law reverse magnetic path from the output coil winding to affect the input power.

Having said that, Stan in his video points out ways to boost the power of the device, namely:

1. Increase the strength of the magnetic particles

2. Increase the speed of the magnetic particles

3. Lower the distance between the magnetic particles and the output winding.

The magnetic particles can be produced in various ways, but the most effective appears to be by filling the arcing chamber with argon gas and using iron, nickel or cobalt electrodes. The reason for this is that the electric arc does not only generate minute particles of the electrode material, but it also interacts with the argon, stripping off electrons and causing some of the metal particles to combine with the modified argon gas molecules to form a magnetic gas. That gas will always remain a magnetic gas due to the atomic bonding as it is not just minute particles of metal physically suspended in a gas due to their tiny size.

You will recall from chapter 1, that the very successful ShenHe Wang magnet motor/generator has a magnetic liquid as a key component. Here, Stan is producing a much lighter magnetic gas and the advantage of that lightness is that it can be boosted to very high speeds without any danger. The larger the number of modified argon molecules, the greater the magnetic effect when they pass through a coil of wire. The argon gas can be passed through the arc chamber over and over again so that a very high percentage of the gas is magnetic. Alternatively, if you are sophisticated in the design of the particle generator, you can arrange for the molecules which have become magnetic, to be pulled off into storage by a magnetic field.

Stan talks about pumping the magnetic gas through whatever pipe loop arrangement you decide to use, by a pump, but he promptly moves on to using a magnetic coil to boost the gas forward as the coil has no moving parts and so, no mechanical wear. This is only one reason. The main reason is that with magnetic acceleration, the gas speed can become very high indeed and in his video he talks about the speed of light. However, I personally do not believe that anything remotely like a speed that great could be achieved inside a pipe loop of small diameter. Nevertheless, speeds well in excess of what a mechanical pump can achieve are likely to be produced by magnetic acceleration.

Russ, in his discussion, points out that on most of Stan’s surviving prototypes, the coil which is used for the acceleration is constructed using several apparently separate coils, and he speculates that each coil section is powered sequentially, causing a rippling magnetic field. While that is definitely possible, I don’t see that a style of coil powering would have any advantage as opposed to powering all of the coils continuously. However, if sequential powering is believed to be an advantage, then the ‘Divide-by-N’ circuitry of chapter 12 can be used to provide the sequential powering or any more complex sequence.

Stan then points out that the output voltage can be increased by increasing the number of turns on the output coil and/or having additional output coils. This is easily understood conventional electrics. But, he then goes on to point out that the output will also be increased if the electrons of the modified argon molecules are raised to a high orbital level. This places the electromagnetic electrons (as described in chapter 11) closer to the output coils and presumably also allows the gas to be accelerated to a greater speed by the driving magnetic field.

This power boosting of the gas is achieved using Stan’s “Gas Processor” described in chapter 10. The Gas Processor pumps electromagnetic energy into the gas through the use of banks of Light-Emitting Diodes which produce light of the correct wavelength to add energy to that particular gas.

If you check on the internet for the wavelength of argon, you find conflicting information, with some sites saying that the wavelength is 1090 nanometres (“nm”) and most others saying both 488 nm and 514.5 nm. Most LEDs produce a band of frequencies, so it would be a case of picking LEDs whose band of frequencies include the wanted wavelength.

The Gas Processor itself, consists of a central tube which is polished to a mirror finish on the outside, surrounded by a larger tube which is highly polished on the inside. The LED light is then bounced between these polished surfaces until it is absorbed by the gas which is passed through the gap between the two tubes. This is not easy to illustrate, but it might be shown like this:


In Stan’s design, he uses six columns of sixteen LEDs, with each column of LEDs spaced out evenly around the outer tube. So, to boost the Magnetic Particle Generator to greater power levels, a Gas Processor is placed in the loop of tubing:


The Gas Processor normally has a coil mounted at each end and it may be convenient to use coils in those positions as accelerator coils. It may also be an advantage to apply a pulsed high-voltage between the inner and outer tubes of the Gas Processor. As it stands, this looks as if it has a high possibility of being a COP>1 electrical device.


Patrick Kelly
http://www.free-energy-info.co.uk 

1 comment:

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